BCom Forms or Channels and Mediums of Communication Notes Study Material
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BCom Forms or Channels and Mediums of Communication Notes Study Material
Every communication uses one or the other channel of communication. Here ‘channel refers to that path through which information passes or flows from one person to another. “Medium” refers to the factor that is used to convey the information. The form of communication in an organization may be formal or informal. Every organization has to adopt two communication processes-internal and external.
Internal communication refers to that information/order/suggestion/caution etc. which is communicated and received within a particular organization. External communication refers to communication with external agencies like banks/ government offices/ insurance agencies/ customers/ exporters etc. Thus, the success of a business organization depends on its effective communication system as it helps the organization achieve its goals and objectives.
Communication can be classified on the basis of business or organizational relationship as follows:
1. Formal, and 2. Informal
- Formal communication. This communication is usually between functioning managers or other officers in the same organization. It includes official decisions, memorandums, circulars, etc. For example, manager ‘A’ who is a senior officer sends a command to his immediate subordinate. This subordinate communicates it to other employees ‘C’ working under him for necessary action. Thus, it is a formal channel.
- Informal communication. A person does not stick to formal communication only but involves himself in informal communication also along with formal one. It does not follow any planned system or set rules. When a person comes on his work in an organization he talks to his friends about his household, family matters, energy problems, world-cup competition, films, and matters related to other colleagues in the organization. These are all personal talks. Thus, most of the communications are informal communications, which do not follow any established path or planned system. These are free from all formalities. This is also called rumors or grapevine.
In today’s scientific age number of media are available for communicating messages and information, but on the basis of language it may be classified into two groups:
I. Verbal, II. Non-verbal.
1. Verbal communication. It is through language, which basically acts as a medium to convey the idea, thought, or feeling of a person to the receiver or listener. Verbal communication is of two types:
(1) Oral communication, (2) Written communication.
2. Non-verbal communication. It includes the forms of body movements, facial expressions, gestures, signs, etc. which are not directly related to any language. Yet, these are significant in their own way and they act as supplements to verbal communication.
1. Oral Communication
In this process of communication, the sender and receiver exchange their ideas through oral words face to face. In other words, when communication is performed by words and sentences, it is called oral communication. It includes talk, dialogue, meetings, conferences, interviews, lectures, announcements, radio talks, telephone talks, storytelling, mythological presentation, discussion, court hearings, parliamentary discussions, etc. (BCom Forms or Channels and Mediums of Communication Notes Study Material)
Man is the only animal who can communicate orally by producing various audio and visual signs. All other animals have very limited capacity to produce audio signs or facial expressions. To make oral communication successful and effective it is necessary that the speaker should have knowledge of the subject matter, conceptual clarity, appropriate words, gestures, clear pronunciations of proper fluctuations of sound, and proper style, and the audience should have the quality of listening capacity, observation power, and perception to understand the non-verbal images and to convert them into thoughts. The following qualities are necessary to make oral communication effective:
- Proper and clear pronunciation
- Words power
- Proper way
- Proper fluctuations of sound
- Proper language and style
One must remember 7-Cs for successful and effective oral communication.
- Candid, 2. Clear, 3. Complete, 4. Concise, 5. Concrete, 6. Correct, 7. Courteous.
The above qualities can make oral communication interesting, soothing to listeners, and also make them spellbound.
Advantages. The advantages of oral communication are as follows:
- It saves time and money.
- Better control of subordinates is possible through oral communication.
- Wastage of time, money, and energy can be avoided.
- This medium is more effective than other media of communication.
- In this communication gestures, signs, indications, and variations in the tone pitch, and intensity of voice can be seen and felt, which is not possible in other media. (BCom Forms or Channels and Mediums of Communication Notes Study Material)
- It is more clear. If the listener fails to understand, he can immediately get it explained clearly
- This communication is very useful in meetings, conferences, and seminars.
- It strengthens mutual relations.
- Feedback is received instantly in this form of communication.
- It helps in creating a healthy atmosphere in an organization.
Limitations or Disadvantages. Limitations or Disadvantages of oral communication are as follows:
- Oral communication is not possible when the sender and receiver are far away from each other or no mechanical devices are available to connect them orally.
- It is difficult to fix or assign responsibility in oral communication.
- It is suitable for small and simple messages. It is not suitable for lengthy and complicated messages.
- It does not have legal validity unless there is some system of confirmation of the message.
- In the absence of a record, oral communication cannot be retained in mind for a long time.
- It is not always possible to save time and money. Sometimes meetings, conferences, and seminars do not give desired results and a lot of time and money gets wasted. (BCom Forms or Channels and Mediums of Communication Notes Study Material)
- This communication may not be effective in all situations. It depends on certain conditions, and in their absence it becomes ineffective. It always depends on the speaker’s way of communication and the listener’s reception ability.
- Misunderstanding and confusion are always possible in oral communication, particularly when the speaker fails to convey his message tactfully and in a well-organized form or when the receiver does not listen to it carefully.
2. Written Communication
When the message or information is communicated through letters, circulars, memos, reports, minutes of meetings, agendas, bulletins, journals, official publications, gazette, schedules, questionnaires, project reports, etc. then it is called written communication. This communication provides the facility of preparing well-thought drafts of messages or information before communicating it. Drafting of the message is an art wherein the sender shows his ability to understand the concerned subject matter, his maturity, foresight, and his profound knowledge of the language. Advantages. (BCom Forms or Channels and Mediums of Communication Notes Study Material)
The advantages of written communication are as follows:
- This communication provides permanent records or documents, as the written message or information turns into the documented record and can be preserved for reference in the future.
- This communication is a legal document, which explains the contractual understanding between two parties. It helps to resolve disputes in the future. (BCom Forms or Channels and Mediums of Communication Notes Study Material)
- This communication is clear and authentic. It compels the sender to draft a well-thought document
- Written communication can be read again and again and can be repeated as and when needed.
- It makes it possible to assign responsibility. There is a sense of responsibility in this communication
- Distance between sender and receiver is not a problem. It is useful even when the sender and receiver are far away from each other.
- This communication is extremely useful for the operation and functioning of an organization.
- In this communication, a message or information can reach an unlimited number of people. While launching a new product in the market or when a bank wants to acquaint people with its investment/savings scheme, written communication is very useful as it can reach a large number of people. (BCom Forms or Channels and Mediums of Communication Notes Study Material)
- A nicely drafted and effective written communication can build a good image and bring fame to an organization.
- Written communication possesses the quality of developing a sense of responsibility among managers and employees of an organization. Written communication can create a sense of responsibility more powerfully than oral communication.
Limitations or Disadvantages. Written communication is not always without drawbacks. In spite of possessing many qualities, it has some limitations as well.
- It is a costly system, as to keep records of communication an organization has to spend a lot of money on filing, postage, printing, and of course on the valuable time of all those who are involved in the process.
- It is time-consuming.
- It takes much time in removing confusion or doubt, in case of any dispute or when the message is not very clear, it takes a lot of time to make clear. (BCom Forms or Channels and Mediums of Communication Notes Study Material)
- This communication becomes ineffective when a person, is honest and dutiful, but weak in expression.
- In the case where prompt feedback is necessary, written communication becomes helpless. It takes time to encode, decode and communicate feedback and the time involved in its encoding/decoding. Thus, this communication process is time-consuming.
Finally, it can be concluded that certain facilities that are provided in written communication are not present in oral. Drafting of the message is an art and the communicator can prove his knowledge of the subject matter; his tactfulness, maturity, foresight, and insight; his mastery over the language in his written communication. (BCom Forms or Channels and Mediums of Communication Notes Study Material)
Written Communication has the facility to maintain secrecy and communicate secret messages. To avoid or remove misunderstandings it is necessary to go for written communication. Particularly, all the business-related contracts and bonds are prepared in written form.