BCom 1st Year Report Writing Question Answers
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BCom Report Writing Question Answers
Q. 1. State the meaning, objectives and types of a proposal: How are the proposals planned?
Or, What is meant by a proposal? What are the objectives and types of a proposal? Give the structure of a proposal.
MEANING OF PROPOSAL
Proposal means a presentation for consideration of other party. It gives some information on a particular issue to another party or parties. A proposal puts the ideas or opinion or method of doing something before the other party or parties. Proposal is a way of putting an offer before another party for the purpose of getting his consent thereto.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
Examples of Proposals: Proposal of a company to merge with another company, proposal of an advertising agency to promote a product, a notice inviting tenders from contractors, proposal to declare dividend, proposal to call a meeting etc.
Features of Proposals
- Generally, proposals are written. However, they can be oral or a combination of both also.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
- Proposals may be made by a person or an organisation or an association, etc.
- Proposals may be made to an individual or an organisation or an association or a government agency etc.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
- Proposals can be internal or external. Internal proposals are made by one part of a business to another part. External proposals are made out of the organisation.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
- A proposal must put on offer or an idea or an opinion or a method etc.
- A proposal must be made with an intention of mutual agreement.
OBJECTIVES OF PROPOSAL OR NEED OF A PROPOSAL
A proposal is made with two important objectives:
(i) To get the idea or opinion accepted.
(ii) To get you accepted to do the job.
A proposal can be made for following purposes:
- To propose a change in policy and programme.
- To propose some selections and to settle the terms of employment.
- To propose declaration of dividend.
- To sell a property, to construct buildings, roads, bridges, structures, plants etc.
- To improve engineering performance within a company.
- To plan and develop some research.
TYPES OF PROPOSAL OR CLASSIFICATION OF PROPOSAL
A proposal may broadly be divided into two parts:
- Solicited Proposal: A solicited proposal means a proposal which is made in response to a formal request. Such request is called RFP (Requests for proposal). Business enterprises usually initiate solicited proposals by issuing a request for proposal. They invite bids from contractors for a work or a project. Similarly, business enterprises which do not have their own research and development department, invite proposals to fulfill their needs for specific products and services. In response to their invitations, a number of proposals are received and the best proposal is selected. Therefore, such a proposal should be prepared carefully. It must show that you can satisfy their needs in an efficient manner and better than all other competitors.
- Unsolicited Proposals: An unsolicited proposal is the proposal which is made by a business enterprise on its own and not in response to a request. Such a proposal offers something to potential customers with the hope that they will agree to it. In this way, unsolicited proposals may be regarded as sales letters. AIDA formula guide the preparation of such proposals:
(i) A: Attention of readers is drawn to the products or service.
(ii) I: Interest of readers is built up in the product or service.
(iii) D: Desire is persuaded to go ahead with the proposal, to discuss the matter and to finalise the things.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
(iv) A: Action is inspired to buy the product or to do the act.
PLANNING OF PROPOSAL
A proposal can be planned by dividing it into four parts:
- Title Page: Title page of a proposal should give the heading of proposal, name and address of proposer, name and address of the person or organisation to whom the proposal it submitted, date of proposal, etc.
- Introduction (Synopsis): A proposal should start with its introduction. This part should present the basic idea of proposal. It should cover the background of proposal, main theme of proposal and also the limitations of proposal. It should be prepared in the manner that the reader may get an idea of complete proposal through it. It should speak how objectives will be met and what procedures will be followed.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
- Text of Proposal: It is the main part of proposal. It persuades the reader to understand the proposal in full and also the terms of proposal. If it is a solicited proposal, it is governed by the request for proposal because most of the requests spell out how to submit a proposal. If it is an unsolicited proposal, it should be drafted in the manner that client may come to your ideas. It should establish the need for action and focus on the benefits of proposal. It may cover the planning of job ahead and also the steps to be taken for completing the job. It should cover the financial aspects of proposal also. It should describe the capability and experience of your organisation in doing the jobs of proposed nature and also the facilities available in your organisation to do the job.(BCom Business Communication Report Writing Question Answers)
- Conclusion: A detailed proposal should have a conclusion section also. It should contain a summary of all the details of proposal. This section should be relatively brief, positive and persuasive. It should convince why you and your organisation are the best ones to do the job.
Q. 2. State the meaning, characteristics and objectives of report.
or, What is a report? What are its features and objectives?
or, State the meaning and importance of business report.
MEANING AND DEFINITION OF REPORT OR MEANING AND DEFINITION OF BUSINESS REPORT
A report means a statement prepared to present some facts and information. The term report is used in two senses: wide and narrow. In its wide sense, al report may include any presentation or information. In narrow sense, a report is a formal presentation of facts. Report is a part of administrative functions and depicts all commercial activities of a business. It has been defined as under:
“A business report is an orderly and objective communication of factual information that serves a business purpose.” -Lesikar.
“A business report is an unbiased and arranged presentation of facts by one or more than one persons for a definite and specified important business purpose.” -Louis L.N.
“Report is a documentation in which by the purpose of providing information, a specific problem is researched and analysed and conclusions, thoughts and sometimes references are presented.” –Koontz and O’Donnel.
Thus, a report is an unbiased, orderly and objective presentation of facts for a specific business purpose.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
CHARACTERISTICS OR FEATURES OF A REPORT
Important characteristics of a report are as follows:
- Orderly Arrangements: A report is an orderly presentation of facts. It should be prepared in a definite and arranged manner.
- Objective and Unbiased: A report must be objective and unbiased. It should speak truth, free from fear and favour.
- Factual Information: A report must provide factual information. It should be based on events, records, research and data. It may be a conclusion of completed jobs and description of business activities.
- Business Purpose: Though reports are prepared in every walk of life, yet a business report must serve a business purpose.
OBJECTIVES OR FUNCTIONS OF BUSINESS REPORT OR NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF BUSINESS REPORT
Important objectives or functions of a business report may be summarised as follows:
- Helpful in Measuring Performance: Primary object of a business report is to measure and evaluate business performance. It helps in determining the areas in which the performance has been weak so that it may be improved.
- Helpful in Planning: Business report prepares a base for planning for future. Management can prepare and modify its plans based on these reports.
- Helpful in Decision Making: Business reports are an important tool for decision making. A number of business decisions are taken on the basis of reports.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
- Helpful in Controlling: Business reports help in determining variances between budgeted and actual performance. It helps in determining where the · things are not going in accordance with plans and targets. It guides as to where the control is required and to what extent.
- Helpful in Combating Changes: Change is a permanent feature of life. Business reports analyse and convince the impact of changes on business affairs. These reports guide the employees what to do and what not to do under changed conditions.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
Q.3. What are the types of business reports? Explain the essentials of an effective business report.
or, State the meaning and types of business reports. Also explain the qualities of a good report.
MEANING OF BUSINESS REPORT
A report means a statement prepared to present some facts and information. A business report is a formal presentation of facts and depicts all commercial activities of a business. A report is an unbiased, orderly and objective presentation of facts for a specific business purpose.
TYPES OF BUSINESS REPORT
Business reports may be classified on several basis as under:
- On the Basis of Legal Formalities
(i) Formal Report: Formal report is a report which is prepared in a prescribed form and presented according to the flow of organisational structure. It may again be divided into two parts as under:
(a) Statutory Report: If a report is prepared to comply with legal requirements, it is called statutory report. It is prepared in the form and according to the procedure laid down by law. Examples: Statutory report at the time of formation of company, directors’ report at annual general meeting, annual return, auditor’s report etc.
(b) Non-statutory Report: When a report is prepared in a company to help the management in policy making or decision making, it is called non-statutory report. Such reports are prepared according to the need and objectives of an enterprise.
(ii) Informal Report: An informal report is prepared in the form of a letter or memorandum. It is in the form of a person-to-person communication and relates to day-to-day affairs. These reports are prepared in the way and form as required and do not follow a prescribed form.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
- On the Basis of Functions
(i) Informative Report: A report which presents some facts or information, is called an informative report. It reveals the results of some research or survey or study etc.(BCom Business Communication Report Writing Question Answers)
(ii) Interpretative Report: A report which analyses the facts, draws conclusions and makes recommendations, is called interpretative or analytical report. Such a report is used to make comparative study of two periods or concerns or events also.(BCom Business Communication Report Writing Question Answers)
- On the Basis of Frequency of Issue
(i) Periodic or Routine Reports: Periodic or routine reports are the reports which are prepared and presented at regular intervals in the routine affairs of business. These reports may be daily, weekly, fortnightly, monthly, quarterly, half yearly, annually etc. These reports contain a statement of facts and analysis of performance.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
(ii) Special Reports: A report which is prepared at a special occasion or in a particular situation, is called a special report. Such reports deal with the problems of non-recurring nature. Such reports are prepared to take some important decision such as the opening of a new branch or launching a new product or announcing a new scheme, etc.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
- On the Basis of Subject Matter
Different reports deal with different subject matters on this basis, a report may be of following types.
(i) Technical Report
(ii) Financial report
(iii) Performance report
(iv) Fact-finding report
(v) Problem solution Report
- On the Basis of Number of Persons
A report may be prepared by one person or a group of persons or a committee. On this basis, a report may be of following types:
(i) Report by individuals.
(ii) Report by a committee or a sub-committee.
ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD REPORT OR CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE BUSINESS REPORT
Business reports occupy an important place in the management, administration and control of a business enterprise. Therefore, business reports must be effective. An effective business report must possess following characteristics:
- Accuracy: An effective business report must be accurate. It should tell the truth. Since a business report is the base of decision making, it should be reliable. Following points should be observed in this respect.
(i) Facts of a report should be thoroughly checked and verified.
(ii) Facts or events should be described in concrete terms.
(iii) All relevant facts should be disclosed and irrelevant facts should be avoided.
(iv) Facts and details should be put in perspective.
- Good Judgment: An effective business report should be based on good Judgment. If should be free, fair and unbiased. Following points should be considered in this regard:
(i) Main idea of report should be given in the beginning.
(ii) Language and style of report should be determined according to the standard & status of receiver.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
(iii) Likes, dislikes and needs of readers should be kept in mind while preparing a report.(BCom Business Communication Report Writing Question Answers)
- Format, Style and Organisation of Report: Format, style and organisation of report should be determined considering the needs of reader. It depends upon following questions:
(i) Whether the report is voluntary or authoritative?
(ii) Whether the report is of routine nature or on an important issue?
(iii) Whether the report is internal or external?
(iv) Whether the report is informative or analytical?
(v) What is the probable reaction of reader?
- Precision: An effective report must be short and precise. Relevant and to-the-point facts should be disclosed. It gives coherence to the report. However, all necessary facts and information must be included.
- Objectivity: A report must be objective and impartial. Only the relevant and necessary facts and information must be given in the report. The report should be closed with specific recommendation. Self interest of writer should be sacrified while preparing a report.
Q. 4. How is a report organised?
Or, How is a report planned?
Or, What are the short and detailed report? How are they planned?
Ans. For the purpose of planning and organisation, business reports may be divided into two parts:
(A) Short Report, and (B) Long Report or Formal Report.
(A) SHORT REPORT
Meaning of Short Report
Short report is a report which presents the description in a short form. Such a report is concise and to-the-point. It needs less detailed introduction, short description, no appendices and excessive formality. A short report is presented in a letter or memorandum form. A short report begins directly-most important information is given in the beginning. Such reports are written between the persons who know each other very well and there is no need of formalities.
Planning or Organisation of a Short Report
Short reports are planned as follows:
- Format: For brief internal reports, memo form should be adopted. For brief external reports, letter form should be adopted. Headings should be used wherever required. Important information or fact or recommendation should be emphasised upon. It should be divided into paragraphs according to need.
- Opening: In case of routine memos, subject of report should be given in the beginning. First one or two sentences should be given as introduction. For other short reports, these topics may be covered in introduction
- Body (Finding and Supporting Details): Main contents of report should be given in this part. This part should discuss the topic in details and provide supportive data also. It should be divided in appropriate number of paragraphs. Each paragraph should cover one topic. The language and style of report should be appropriate and according to the need of matter and status of receiver. Informal style (‘T’ and ‘You’) should be adopted for letter and memo forms. Impersonal style should be adopted for formal short reports. Direct order should be adopted for informational and analytical reports. Irrelevant and unnecessary details should be avoided.
- Closing: A short report should be closed with a summary of important findings and recommendations. These points should be arranged in the order in which they appear in the text. It should be ensured that conclusions and recommendations given in this part follow logically from the text.
(B) LONG REPORT OR FORMAL REPORT
Meaning of Long or Formal Report
Long report (formal report) provides information in detail supported with facts. It provides more prefatory information, more visuals and more forms of support. It involves greater length and depth of discussion. Complex problems and major issues are discussed in such reports. The report is prepared generally in parts and each part confines to a particular information. Thus, a long (formal) report means more detailed and complex report.
Planning of a Long (Formal) Report
A long (formal) report is divided into three parts:
1. Prefatory part, 2. Text of report, and 3. Supplementary part.
- Prefatory Part (Introduction): Prefatory part of a long (formal) report consists of following parts:
(i) Cover page gives the name and logo of company. It is made up of heavy paper and attractive look.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
(ii) Title Cover gives the title of report along with the year. It may give the identification of writer and recipient also.
(iii) Forward or preface is also given in very long and highly formal reports.
(iv) Table of contents gives a description of the order of contents of report.
(v) List of illustrations contains a list of parts and illustrations with page numbers.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
(vi) Executive summary gives the main points of report in brief.
- Text of Report: Text of report includes following parts and order:
(i) Introduction gives the purpose, coverage, limitations methodology, definition of important terms used etc. It prepares readers to receive the report.
(ii) Body consists of main part of report. It is divided into different chapters or sections. Each chapter deals with a different part or aspect of problem. Supportive proofs are also given in this part. It contains all the required information and details.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
(iii) Summary gives the important findings of report so that the report may be analysed and understood in nutshell.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
(iv) Conclusions are the answers to questions that led to report. It explains the meaning of information given in the report.
(v) Recommendations are the opinions and suggestions as to what should be done and what should not be done. These recommendations flow directly from the contents of report.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
- Supplementary Parts: Supplementary part of a long report may contain the following:
(i) Appendices contain the items that are useful to support the text of report but could not get a place in the text. It may be in the form of questionnaires, working papers, summary tables, charts etc.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
(ii) Bibliography gives the list of sources of information used in the report.
Q. 5. How is a report prepared?
Or, Enumerate the steps of process of preparing a report.
Or, What is a business report? How is it prepared?
MEANING OF BUSINESS REPORT
A report means a statement prepared to present some facts and information. It is a formal presentation of facts and depicts all commercial activities of a business. A report is an unbiased, orderly and objective presentation of facts for a specific business purpose.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
PREPARATION OF REPORT
Business reports have an important place in the management and administration of business. Therefore, these reports should be prepared in a scientific manner. It involves following steps:
- First step: Identifying the Problem: First step in preparing a report is to identify and define the problem for which the report is to be prepared. It defines the purpose of report. Different reports may be prepared for different problems.
- Second Step: Keep Notes: After defining the problem, you should start to collect the information and data that may be useful in your report. You should maintain the notes of everything you get or learn or come to know. The problem to be investigated is divided into small parts. Efforts should be made to collect more and more information on the problem. A folder or file or box can be maintained to collect and keep these information and notes.
- Third Step: Make the Outlines of Report: At this stage, an outline of report is prepared. It gives you a skeleton of report that can be changed, modified and adjusted as you get more information and ideas. It should be prepared in a logical order of presentation because the report prepared by you will be read and understood by other people. A report can be presented in two ways : Inductive method and deductive method. Inductive method suggests that different parts should be prepared and then they should be compiled in the report. Deductive method suggests that a report should be prepared first and then it should be divided into parts.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
- Forth Step: Write to the Level of Readers: All the reports are prepared for those who have to understand and follow them. A report can be effective only if it is understood by its readers. Therefore, the need is that the level and status of readers should be understood and the report should be prepared according to it so that it may serve its purpose properly.
- Fifth Step: Check, Correct and Change: This is the stage at which the cut lines of report are thoroughly checked and corrected, wherever necessary. The outlines can be added, subtracted and altered according to need.
- Sixth Step: Label the Research Papers: In this step, experiments are conducted to solve the problem. If some research has been conducted to solve it summery of research is also included in report.
- Seventh Step: Rough Drafting: This is the stage at which a report is drafted. Following points should be observed in this regard:
(i) The report should be prepared in a logical manner.
(ii) The report should be understandable by its users.
(iii) Technical terms should be explained.
(iv) The language and flow of report should be simple and convincing.
(v) Graphs, charts and visuals should also be used, wherever necessary.
(vi) Footnotes may also be given to explain some terms and to give credit to those whose ideas are being used.(BCom Report Writing Question Answers)
- Eights Step: Revision of Rough Draft: At this stage, grammar, spellings and punctuation should be checked and corrected. If possible, rough draft should be set aside for a while and should be given a fresh look. It should be reread and rechecked. It helps in ensuring that the report includes all that is relevant and does not include anything that is irrelevant. It ensures that the ideas flow in a logical manner from one to another.
- Ninth Step: Compile and Complete the Report: At this stage, you are all set to understand that the report is final and complete. It should be neatly typed or printed and presented in an attractive manner.
BCom Business Communication Report Writing Question Answers