BCom Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material
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Votes Model of Interdependence & Whole Communication Notes Study Material
Models of Interdependence
In the modern age of globalisation, increasing costs and competition have compelled the industry to give more emphasis on use of its highest capacity of production and output and the employees to understand the importance of group work. The economic capacity and policy implication explain the importance of conversation among different groups or among the members of organisation. The working efficiency and policy related problems, which are concerned with the important social elements, influence the thinking and behaviour of the persons. When the members of an organisation/ group while communicating with each other, have the sense of interdependence, then this effect becomes more important.
There are two types of interdependence:
(i) Minimum interdependence. It refers to task group that exist at one particular place. Their interdependence is minimum and are also called group interdependence.
(ii) Maximum interdependence. It refers to the members of a group, having common thinking and feelings, discuss with each other for the accomplishment of each others’ objectives. Such interdependence is also of two types:
(i) Social interdependence,
(ii) Task interdependence.
In social interdependence, members of a group have interdependence for positive social recognition and identity.
In task interdependence, the members depend on each other to achieve material excellence or superiority. To achieve material excellence they work for or support each other also.
Votes Model of Interdependence
Acceptance based Model is based upon two events:
- Pseudo (Artificial) Events,
- Future Events,
1. Pseudo (Artificial) Events: Pseudo (Artificial) Events are those events which helps a group organization or personnel to provide information of future. In other words, a person or an organization tries to create an optimum situation to create an artificial event by various artificial information, is known as Pseudo Events.
2. Future Events: Future events are those events which depends on the performance of pseudo events. It doesn’t mean that only probable events will take place because there is difference between probability and reality.
Paul. E. Lazarfeld has explained interdependency of Pseudo and Future events and their methods of measurement. It can be understood by the following example:
X and Y are two political parties from which A and B are fighting against each other. Both the candidates are trying to attract public by providing various information thinking that this information and forecasting will be in their favor. For this, both the candidates will keep an eye on each other’s activities and form strategies regarding win the election. If we had a survey of this election, we can get these types of voters:
(i) First Type: This type of voters are complicated. What they say and what they do is totally different, They always try to confuse the surveyor.
(ii) Second Type: This type of voters take decision in the end and doesn’t want to answer the questions asked by surveyor.
(iii) Third Type: This type of voters usually change their opinion or decision at the last moment.
But according to Lazarsfeld normally two types of probabilities arises:
(A) Bandwagon Effect: According to election survey pre forecasted winner candidate “A” is having more number of voters than “B”, So that most of the voters will give their votes to “A”. It is called Bandwagon Effect. In other words, If people starts assuming that “A” will win the election, so the probability of his winning automatically increased.
(B) Underdog Effect: Candidate “B” was known as a qualified, able and the best candidate and because of these qualities he could win the election but coincidently he could only get voters sympathy and in the last round of voting he lost the election because of Bandwagon effect, this is called underdog effect.
Leadership. An efficient and effective leader, by maintaining social interdependence, promotes the working capacity and efficiency of the organisation. A leader plays an important role in achieving the objectives of the group and the organisation. A leader can be constructive and also can be distructive for the organisation.
According to Lapier and Farnsworth “Leadership is the behaviour that affects the behaviour of other people more than the behaviour effects of the leader.”
According to Terry George R., “Leadership is the activity of influencing people who Strive willingly for achievement of group objectives.”
According to Koontz, Harold and O’Donnell, Cyil “Leadership is influencing people to follow in the achievement of a common goal.”
According to Bitt, “Leadership is the process of mutual stimulation or reciprocal reinforcement which by the successful inter play of relevant individual differences controls human energy in the pursuit of a common goal.”
Fiedler Model (1967, 81)
Fiedler has given a contingency model of leadership, based on two assumptions:
First assumption. Leaders can be divided in categories on the basis of their capabilities. Two major categories or styles are-Relations-oriented and the other, Task-oriented.
Second assumption. Situations for leadership differ.
The effectiveness of leadership depends on the leaders ability to provide leadership according to his style and the situations available. A leader with relations-oriented style will be more effective in situations where working requires more interdependence and conversation/discussion/dialogues. Such leaders are more effective where medium-level control is required. On the other hand, a leader with task-oriented style will be more effective where difficult and heavy work is involved: and groups work-performance has to be increased. Such type of leaders are more effective in those situations where possibility of requirement leadership control is either at low level or at high level.
Fiedler has shown in the above figure given at the previous page that when control f over situation is at very low level or at very high level, then task-oriented leader is most c effective and very effectively increases the work-capability of the group. On the contrary, F when the control over situation is at medium level, then relations-oriented leader is most effective. Fiedler says that a task-oriented leader gives priority to work-execution, because self-respect of such leader is directly associated with execution of the work In the most difficult situation or when the control over situation is at its lowest level, then task-oriented leader accepting the challenge makes himself committed to get the work executed, and thus he is most effective.
On the other hand, relations-oriented leader will try to maintain inter-personal relations of the group under the pressure of the situation at the low level of control, and as a result the work-execution will also be at low level. So also, at the high level of control of the situation, the relations-oriented leader will try to get more popularity and honour through inter-personal relations and as a result will ignore the work-execution by the group, and thus the execution of work will suffer. In the case of medium level situation control, he will try to gain popularity by paying more attention to work-execution or the group, so that he gains complete control over the situation. In such a case his leadership will be more effective.
Thus, it is clear that according to Fiedler’s contingency model, under difficult complicated situations, task-oriented leadership proves more effective. Every style o leadership is not effective in every type of situation. Thus, the most effective leader is that who is capable of making suitable change in his leadership style according to situation.
Whole communication means wide or comprehensive communication. In this type of communication, all the elements of communication are included, like-feelings, values, opinions etc. (Apart from sender, receiver, channel, message, encoding, decoding, a reference and feedback)
In a normal communication process, the receiver receives only the facts of the message. ** Sender’s body language, gestures, postures, expressions, feelings, values, opinions are “ignored. Normal communication may carry confusion and errors and, therefore, may be wrong, because there are differences in values and feelings of sender and receiver and they affect the message.
In the whole communication following elements are included which make it comprehensive. They are as follows:
- Facts. Facts refer to events based on person’s experience and are taken to be true.
- Feelings. It refers to the person’s mental process, attitudes, expressions in a specific situation, condition and time.
- Values. Values mean changing ideas of a person emerging on account of effects of civilization, culture and society’s norms.
- Opinions. It refers to person’s attitude adopted in a specific situation, condition, at a particular time.
Thus, when the above four elements are included in the normal communication apart from its own elements, then the normal communication is converted into whole communication.
Nikita. Govt. M.K.B. College has secured first position in Youth Festival, 2002 (FACT)
Tanisha. ‘It has won all the competitions of the Youth Festivals.’ (FACT)
Nikita. ‘I am sorry that our Govt. Home Science College, which was earlier winner, Lost all the competitions of the Youth Festival, just because of the lack of patience and coordination.’ (Opinion)
Tanisha. It does not matter, Mata Gujri College is the first non-govt. college to win the second position. Its participants have extra-ordinary potential and capacity to work hard.’ (Opinion)
In this example “MKB College has secured First position in Youth Festival, 2002,” has “been presented in the form of a fact. When a message is sent through a particular “channel and that message is received through some other channel, then confusion and errors are created. To avoid confusion and errors it is necessary to know that message is not merely a fact, but it includes feelings, values, suggestions and opinions also. So, to be a successful and effective communicator one has to understand the importance of all these elements. To receive a clear and correct message, feedback, reactions and effective listening is needed. While a receivers listens to a message, he is absorbed in o thinking about his reactions so much that he is not able to listen it in an effective way. For this, receiver should make his listening more effective.
In short, whole communication refers to receive the transmitted message by the receiver through all the media.
BCom Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Study Material