BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers
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BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers
Q.1. State the meaning, essentials and importance of effective communication.
Or, What is effective communication? What are the basis of effective communication? How does it help in the management of business?
MEANING AND DEFINITION OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Communication is a process of transmitting information from one person to another. It implies mutual exchange of ideas and information. Communication is the life blood of every business enterprise. No business enterprise can work in the absence of communication.
Success of an enterprise depends upon effective communication and not only upon communication. Communication can be effective only if it helps in achieving organisational objectives. Communication can be effective only if it is clear, precise and complete. It should be free from obstacles and completed with feedback from the receiver. It has been defined as under:
“Effective communication is a process by which information is transmitted between individuals and organisations with the purpose to inform, to request or persuade and to build goodwill. It is clear, complete, correct and saves the readers’ time and helps in achieving its goals.” –K.O. Locker
“Administrative communication is a process which involves the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of eliciting actions which will accomplish organisational goals.” –William Scott
To conclude, effective communication is the communication which is clear, complete and reliable. Message of communication is precisely followed by the receiver and then action is resorted to it accordingly.
IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
“Communication can make or mark an organisation.” —Red Field
“Communication is basic to an organisation’s existence from birth of the organisation all through its continuing life; when communication stops, organised activity ceases to exit.” –H.G. Hicks
“Communication, the process of transmitting and receiving information, is so fundamental to the practice of management that without it an organisation, could not exist.” –Haneyager and Heck
Significance of effective communication may be summarized as follows:
- Lifeblood of Management: Effective communication is as important to management and administration as blood is to body. It is the base of all managerial functions. Planning, organising, motivating, directing, co-ordinating, decision making and controlling can be effective only with the support of effective communication. Effective communication helps in establishing and developing co-ordial atmosphere in the enterprise which is necessary successful and efficient working.
- Basis of Planning: Planning means deciding in advance. Effective communication is base of effective planning. Information required for planning are collected through communication. Planning process requires extensive communication. Effective communication is necessary for the implementation of planned programme. (BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers)
- Basis of Decision Making: Effective communication is the base of decision making process. Information required for decision making process are collected through effective communication only. Implementation of decisions also requires effective communication.
- Basis of Co-ordination: Co-ordination means establishing harmonious adjustment among the resources of an enterprise Co-ordination is the essence of management and communication is the essence of co-ordination. Communication helps in developing a feeling of mutual understanding and faith. (BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers)
- Development of Human Relations: Effective communication helps in developing and maintaining effective human relations in the organisation. It develops a feeling of dignity and self-respect among all employees. It makes them realised that they are an important part of organisation. It integrates people and encourages them to put their best efforts. It helps in the timely settlement of disputes. This all helps in achieving organisational objectives.
- Basis of Control: Effective communication is inevitable for effective control. Communication collects the data of actual performance, compares it with pre-determined standards, establishes variances and takes remedial measures. Thus, effective communication plays an important role in effective control. (BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers)
- Basis of Leadership: Effective leadership rests upon effective communication. A supervisor and a manager can be effective leaders also if they command the art of effective communication. It brings the employees together. It helps in the flow of ideas, sentiments, problems and suggestions. It helps in developing mutual understanding, and harmony. It brings employees close to one another and to the organisation.
- Maximum Production at Minimum Cost: Effective communication develops congenial atmosphere in the enterprise. It minimizes the possibilities of strike, lockouts and industrial unrest. It helps in maintaining harmonious relations between labour and management. This all leads to higher efficiency and better utilisation of resources. It makes maximum production possible at minimum cost.
- Promotion of Industrial Peace: Effective communication is the base of industrial peace. It conveys orders and directives of management to worker and problems and suggestions of workers to management. It minimises possibility of mis-understanding between the two. It provides a platform dialogue between the two. This all leads to industrial peace.
- Touch with External Environment: Effective communication helps in developing constant touch with external environment. It helps in getting acquainted with the strategies of competitors. It helps in getting acquainted with the movements of labour unions. It helps in getting acquainted with economic development at regional, national and international level. This all helps in policy making and decision taking.
Essentials or Basis or Foundation of Effective Communication
Essentials of effective communication can be understood by answering the PAIBOC question. It can be explained as follows:
- P: Purpose: Purpose of communication must be clear. It should be clearly defined: why are you communicating? What problems do you want to be solve: what do you want your audience to do? What kind of organisational image you want to create? etc.
- A : Audience: Who are the audience? What is the mental level of audience? How do the members of your audience group differ? What are the expectations of your audience? What response do you expect from then?
- I. Information: What information do you want to communicate? What information you do not want to communicate?
- B : Benefit: Why are you communicating? What benefits do you want to get.
- O : Objection: What are the negative points of your communication? What objections do you expect to get from your audience? How will you face these objections?
- C : Context: What response do you expect to get from your audience? What effect will your communication carry on your audience?
Q. 2. Explain the important theories of communication
or, What do you mean by communication theory ? Explain important theories of communication.
Ans. MEANING OF COMMUNICATION THEORY
Communication is the transmission of information from one person to another. Communication links a person with another. The atmosphere, assumptions and limitations under which communication takes place, are called the theories of communication. Thus, a theory of Communication is an outline of communication messages.
Theories of Communication
A. THEORIES BASED ON SOCIAL-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT
- Communist Theory of Communication: This theory is Based on communism. It was propounded in USSR in 1917. It is based on following principles:
(i) Voice of workers will be heard prominently.
(ii) Exploitation of man by man will be opposed.
(iii) Public will play dominating role in the reconstruction of nation.
(iv) Interest of nation will be supreme.
- Islamic Theory of Communication: This theory is based on ‘Quran’, the religious book of muslims. This theory follows rigid, fanatic, lames and preachings of Prophet Mohammad. This theory is very popular in muslim countries.
- Christian Theory of Communication: This theory is based on ‘Holy Bible’, the religious book of Christians. This theory is based on free thinking. personal freedom and dedication towards God. It recognises human sensitivity and service quality. It is very popular and most commonly adopted all over the world. It is considered to be the foundation stone of communication in Europe,
- Conservative Theory of Communication: This theory is based on conservatism and pre-text of religion and caste. It imposes a number of restrictions on the movements, education and style of living of people, particularly women. They are not allowed to act on their own. They have to follow strict yardsticks of religion and caste. This theory was adopted in some muslim countries for some time but now it is nowhere followed. (BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers)
- Liberal Theory of Communication: This theory is based on liberalisation. It grants full freedom of communication. Under this theory, one is free to communicate, even against the government and society.
- Vedic Theory of Communication: This theory is based on ‘Vedas’, the religious books of Hindus. It is known to be the oldest theory of communication in the world. It is based on ‘Guru-Disciple’ form of education. This theory considers and recognises Indian culture and traditions and is based upon traditional values. It was very popular in old times but it was crushed and deteriorated during Mugal and British empire. (BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers)
B. THEORIES BASED ON DIFFERENT SCHOLARS
- Aristotle’s Theory of Communication (Sender’s): This theory was propounded by great social scientist Aristotle. It assumes three components of communication: sender, message and receiver. Aristotle gave main importance to sender (source of communication). He argued that sender can change the thinking process of receiver, if persuasive techniques are employed. Then, communication will be one sided and sender will be of vital importance. (BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers)
- Lasswell’s Theory of Communication (Channel Theory): This theory was propounded by Lasswell. It is considered to be an extension of Aristotle’s theory. It is also known as one-way theory of communication, emphasising upon sender. According to this theory, thinking process of receiver can be changed by using appropriate channel. Here, sender is not so important but the channel of communication is more important. (BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers)
- Shammon and weaver’s Theory of Communication (Encoded Theory): This theory was propounded by Shammon and weaver. According to this theory, the message should never be transmitted in its row form. It should be encoded and then transmitted. In this manner, receiver will understand the message immediately. This theory emphasised upon feedback and realised the presence of noise. It suggested that to avoid noises in communication, message should first be encoded and them transmitted.
- Schramm’s Theory Of Communication: This theory was propounded by Wilbur Schramm in 1955. He presented the encoded theory in a modified form. He presented three models of his theory
(i) Model 1: This model was same as encoded theory. The only difference was that it did not acknowledge the presence of noise. According to him, it there was no noise, even the message would not get distorted.
(ii) Model 2: In this model, Schramm Suggested that sender should select a channel and transmit the message in encoded form. Thus, Schramm realised the importance of receiver also in this model.
(iii) Model 3: This model brought a revolution in the field of communication by emphasising upon a response from the receiver. Thus, this model recognised five components of communication process:
(b) Encoding process
(c) Decoding Process
- Katz-Lazarrfeld’s Theory of Communication (Mass Communication Theory): This theory was propounded by Katz-lazarrfeld for mass communication. According to this theory, a message is encoded by the sender and transmitted through some appropriate channel to a group leader who relays it to the public. This theory assumes three components of communication: Message, Sender and group leader.
- Berlo’s Theory of Communication (Perception Theory): This theory, propounded by Berlo, stressed upon perception. Berlo suggested that sender encodes the message and transmits it to the receiver using some suitable channel. How the massage is received, depends upon the knowledge and perception of receiver. Thus, according of this theory, perception of receiver plays a vital role.
- Modern Theory of Communication: Modern theory presents communication process in the form of a communication cycle as follows:
Main steps of this theory are as under:
(i) Input: Input means the information or idea generating in the mind of sender. He encodes it and sends it to the receiver.
(ii) Channel: Channel means the media through which a message is sent to receiver. It may be a letter, memorandum, report, telephone, fax, E-mail interview conference, etc. (BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers)
(iii) Message: It is the actual message sent by sender to receiver.
(iv) Output: It is the information sent by sender to receiver.
(v) Feedback: Feedback means the response of message sent by receiver to sender. Communication process gets completed at this stage.
(vi) Brain Drain (Loss of Communication): It means the possibility of misunderstanding at any step during the process of communication. Obstacles in the way of communication cause such loss. Modern theory recognises such loss also.
Q. 3. Define audience analysis. How can the needs of audiences be satisfied? or, Who is an audience? What are the types of audiences? Explain the process of audience analysis.
Ans. MEANING AND TYPES OF AUDIENCE
Audience is the person to whom a message is sent. In other words, audience is the receiver of message. Audience is the focal point of entire communication process. Success of communication process depends to a large extent upon the habits, perceptions, status, knowledge, attitude etc. of audience. Therefore, it is inevitable to know more and more about the audience. In a communication process, there may be five types of audience as under:
- Initial Audience: Initial audience is the person who receives a message first and transmits it to others. He is known as carrier audience also.
- Gate Keeper Audience: A Gate keeper audience is the person who decides whether the message should be delivered to primary audience or not. He can stop the message from reaching to primary audience. In a large organisation, secretary is the gate-keeper audience.
- Primary Audience: Primary audience is the real person for whom the message is sent. He decides whether to accept or refuse the message. He is to decide whether to act on the message or not. (BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers)
- Secondary Audience: Secondary audience comes in the picture only after the approval of message by primary audience. He discusses on the message with primary audience. He may be asked to comment or to act on the message by the primary audience.
- Watchdog Audience: Watchdog audience is the person who keeps an eye on the transaction between sender and primary audience. Though, he cannot stop the message, yet he decides his future course of action. He is called inspector audience also.
Audience analysis means to know more and more about audiences. It tries to know who the audience are or may be, what is their level or status? What are their habits and emotions? What is the relationship between sender and receiver (audience)? etc. Such analysis helps in deciding the message. Steps of audience analysis may be summarised as follows:
- Size and Composition Of Audience: First step of audience analysis is to study the size and composition of audience group. It is so because large audiences behave differently from small one and different communication techniques are used for different groups. Moreover, there is more diversity in large group.(BCom Effective Communication Question Answers)
- Primary Audience: Primary audience is the central point of communication process because he is the person for whom the message is being sent. Therefore, more and more information should be collected about him.
- Probable Reaction of Audience: Probable reaction of audience is very important to be foreseen because it is the real purpose of communication. To get positive response, audiences should be acquainted regarding conclusions and recommendations of message. One should try to anticipate the response or key decision-makers on specific points.
- Level of Audiences: Knowledge, experience and IQ level of audiences also play an important role in communication process. It helps in deciding whether they should be educated or not. (BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers)
- Relationship With Audience: It is important to know the relationship between sender and receiver because communication with well known persons and communication with strangers are quite different. Style, contents and presentation of message get affected by such relationship. (BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers)
SATISFYING AUDIENCE NEEDS
Audience is the focal point of entire communication process. If audiences are satisfied, the communication process can be effective. To get the audiences satisfied, their following needs must be satisfied.
- Information Needs: Audiences want to collect different information and clarifications from sender. These needs must be satisfied by following five steps as under:
- Audience’s Desire: Sender must know what does an audience want to know. In some cases, it is readily apparent. However, in some cases, the sender should clear his doubts by asking him directly. It is important to understand the desire of audience so that relevant information maybe provided. (BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers)
- Unstated Questions: Unstated questions are the points which should be covered in the message, though these points are not specifically asked. Practically, these are the additional information provided by sender so that the message may be more effective, communicative and convincing.
- To provide Required Information: Message must be quite clear and comprehensive. It should reply all relevant questions, whether asked or not: What, when, why, where, which, how, etc.
- Useful And Accurate Information: The information provided must be useful and accurate so that the confidence of audience may be gained. It should be decided and ensured in advance: Whether the information is true and correct? Whether it is necessary? Whether it is useful?
- Adequate Technique: Technique of transmission is also very important. It is not enough that the message is correct and according to the needs of audience, it is also necessary that it should be transmitted properly and at proper times.
- Motivational Needs: Message should be prepared and presented in the manner that it may win the confidence of audience and bring a change in his beliefs or behaviour. It becomes more important when an audience goes against the message and refuses to accept it. The message should be arranged in the manner that it may be as acceptable as possible. Rational arguments should be presented in an objective tone so that motivational needs of audience may be satisfied.
- Empirical Needs: Message should be simple and worth accepting. It should be directed towards audiences. It should be brief and as convenient as possible because your audience may have little time to devote to your message. Business, in present times, has become busy-ness. If possible, headings, charts. graphs, bold letters etc. should be used.
Q. 4. Explain the principles of effective communication.
or, Explain seven C’s of effective communication.
Ans. MEANING OF COMMUNICATION
Communication is the transmission of information, facts, ideas and opinion from one person to another. It involves a systamatic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. It may be by words, letters, symbols or messages.
Meaning of Effective Communication: Effective communication is the communication which is duly communicated, understood and responded. It is the communication which helps in attaining organisational objectives. It communicates the orders and guidelines issued by management to the workers and employees and also the problems and grievances of workers to management. It encourages workers to work harder and put their best efforts to achieve organisational objectives. It helps in understanding how the subordinates can be encouraged to do their work. (BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers)
PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION OR SEVEN C’S OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
- Completeness: Business communication should be complete. It should include all the required facts and opinions. It should include all those things that are asked and that are important in clarifying one’s message. Following three elements should be included in business message:
(i) All Necessary Information: Business message should include all the information required by receiver for complete understanding a complete message should answer five W’s questions—who, what, when, where, and why.
(ii) Answer To All Questions: A business message should answer all questions, stated and implied. Clear and simple information should be provided while answering these questions.
(iii) Other Necessary Information: According to Royal Bank of Canada, “Completeness means that you tell your reader what he or she wants to know about your service or product.” Business message should be informative, attractive and inspiring.
- Conciseness: Conciseness means saying something in brief. It should explain everything in minimum possible words. Following three conditions should be satisfied:
(i) Wordy expressions should be avoided. Instead, brief notings should be used.
(ii) Only the relevant material should be given. Irrelevant material should be avoided.
(iii) Repetition of sentences, words and phrases should be avoided.
- Consideration: Consideration means transmitting a message keeping the receiver in mind. The message should focus on ‘you’ instead of ‘I’ and ‘We’. The message should show interest in the receiver, Reader’s benefits should be personalised and emphasised. Similarly, positive and pleasant facts should be emphasised. The message should reflect the integrity and honesty of sender.
- Concreteness: Concreteness means using specific, definite, clear and vivid information. Thus, the message should not be vague and general, Following points should be observed:
(i) Specific facts and figures should be used.
(ii) Reliable statistics should be used to support the message.
(iii) Comparative information, if available, should be used.
(iv) The message should be direct, explicit and specific.
(v) Active verbs should be used in place of passive verbs.
- Clarity: Clarity means simplicity. The message should be so clear that it may be understood with little efforts. It can be achieved in following two ways:
(i) Use of Concrete, Precise and Familiar Language: Simple and easy language should be used in business messages. Every word of message should convey its sense. Language of message should be familiar to audiences and appropriate to situation. Technical terms should not be used, as for as possible. Short sentences make the message more clear. Words should be arranged correctly so that they may express intended meaning clearly. (BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers)
(ii) Use of Effective Sentences and Paragraphs: Uniformity, sequence and flow of language should be followed. Message should be divided into paragraphs so that different issues may be given in different paragraphs. Main idea of sentences and paragraph must be very very clear.
- Courtesy: Courtesy means politeness. It grows out of respect and good behaviour. Following points should be observed for a courteous communication:
(i) The message should be respectful, thoughtful and appreciative.
(ii) The message should give equal treatment to all, irrespective of gender, race, status, income, etc.
(iii) The message should show respect and concern for others.
- Correctness: The message should be correct in all respects. Following points should be observed:
(i) Proper grammar, punctuation and effective language should be used.
(ii) Accurate facts and figures should be given.
(iii) The message should be checked and rechecked to ensure its correctness.
Conclusion: “Knowing the seven’s and using them, will help you become a better communication; the principles for these seven criteria for good communication are core principles of effective communication.” –Hildbrardt and Thomas
“To think of a successful business without proper communication in today’s world is like day dreaming.” –Keith Devis
“The success of all managerial work depends upon communication” –Theo Haemann.
BCom 1st Year Effective Communication Question Answers