BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers
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BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers
Q. 1. Explain the meaning, Characteristics, and types of groups.
MEANING OF GROUP
A group means a collection of two or more persons who are related to one another in one way or the other. They work together or play together or live together or eat together or study together, etc. Members of a group are in a cooperative interdependent relationship with one another. These members follow some common norms with regard to certain behavior, attitude, and belief.
A combination of two or more persons can be called a group only when they get together to do something or discuss something or achieve something. Thus, the persons should have a common purpose for the meeting and should set some standards for attaining their objectives.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUP
- Two or More Persons: There should be two or more persons to form a group. However, there is no restriction on the maximum number of members.
- Common Aim: All the members of the group have a common aim to achieve. It may be to work, play, study, enjoy, eat, walk, etc.
- Mutual Co-operation and Interdependence: The theme of grouping is based on mutual cooperation and interdependence. All the members of a group depend upon each other for the accomplishment of a common goal.
- Group Dynamism: One member puts his opinion before others who may accept or reject it. Thus, group dynamics depends upon relationship due to mutual intimacy. (BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers)
TYPES OF GROUP
Groups can be classified into four categories:
- Formal Group: People related to the same work are called a formal group. They follow the formal structure of the Organisation. Examples: Teachers of a school, players of a team, employees of a company, etc.
- Informal Group: Persons having similar interests, may form an informal group. Experiences tell us that informal groups are the by-products of formal groups. Example: A group of four teachers of a school, three players of a team, and four students of a class may have informal relations.
- Primary Group: Primary group is formed by people who get together to do some common work. These members have frequent personal contacts. Example: Members of a family, residents of a colony, etc.
- Secondary Group: A secondary group is a group of persons who are engaged in different activities. These are relatively large groups. Members of such groups cannot have personal interaction due to the size of the group. Examples: Persons living in a city, students studying in a school, etc. (BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers)
Q. 2. State the meaning and objectives of the group discussion. How one can prepare for group discussion?
or, State the meaning, objectives, advantages, and disadvantages of group discussion.
MEANING OF GROUP DISCUSSION
The success of a business organization depends upon the coordinated efforts of all its members. Group efforts always require mutual discussion and interaction, known as group discussion. Group discussion is a process of oral communication among some members of an organization to arrive at consensus decisions.
In a group discussion, a problem or a policy matter, or an issue is discussed orally to arrive at a conclusion. Thus, group discussion is an effort to arrive at a solution to a problem or take a decision or formulate a policy or evaluate performance.
OBJECTIVES OF GROUP DISCUSSION
- Exchange of Ideas: Main aim of group discussion is to discuss problems among the members of the group. They exchange their ideas and try to find a solution to the problem.
- Decision Making: Group discussion helps in decision-making, Selected members are involved in the decision-making process. They discuss the matter and take an appropriate decision. All other members are informed of these decisions.
- Solution of Problems: An important object of group discussion is t find a solution to organizational problems. All concerned members take part in the discussion and put their suggestions so that a solution may be found.
ADVANTAGES OF GROUP DISCUSSION
- Healthy Discussion: All the members of a group discuss a problem and try to find a solution. It encourages healthy discussion. It increases mutual understanding also.
- Rational Decision: Group discussions are expected to produce more rational decisions because of long discussions and deep understanding.
- Better Understanding And Co-operation: Group discussion helps in increasing the knowledge of participants. Every member gets the ideas, views, and opinions of other members. It promotes better understanding and cooperation among group members.
- Efficient Utilisation of Resources: Group discussion helps in the efficient utilization of resources. Available resources are allocated in a manner that may produce the best possible results.
- Division of Labour: Group discussion promotes the division of labor. People specializing in different fields contribute their views in the field of expertise. (BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers)
DISADVANTAGES OF GROUP DISCUSSION
- Delayed Decisions: Group discussion takes its own time. It causes the possibility of delayed decisions.
- Expensive: Group discussion is an expensive process. Sending notice to the members, fixing a place for the meeting and arranging for tea, etc. are the things to be done for group discussion. (BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers)
- Possibility of Group Conflicts: Group discussion may cause group conflicts also. If the discussion ends without any solution, there may be a disagreement among members. The members whose views are not accepted may feel annoyed.
REQUISITES OF SUCCESSFUL GROUP DISCUSSION
- Preparation for Group Discussion: The date, time, venue, and duration of discussion should be decided and informed to the members well in advance. The purpose of the discussion should be clearly defined. Expectations from members should also be made clear to them.
- Co-operative Environment: Group discussion should be held in a cooperative environment so that all members may express their views and give their opinion freely and frankly.
- Participative Discussion: Group discussions should be held in a participative manner. Members of the group should be encouraged to give their opinion and views. All members should have a positive attitude.
- Positive and Constructive Approach: All the members of the group should have a positive approach. They should come with a view to reaching a decision. No one should adhere to what he says or thinks. Every member should listen to the views of other members and accept them if applicable.
- Preference to Group Interests: Group discussion can be successful y only if group interests are protected and individual interests are sacrificed. Every member should realize that he can prosper only if his organization is prosperous.
Q. 3. Write short notes on the following:
(a) Preparation for group discussion.
(b) Responsibilities of chairperson regarding group discussion.
(c) Responsibilities of recorder regarding group discussion.
(d) Responsibilities of members regarding group discussion.
(e) Behaviour during group discussion.
(a) PREPARATION FOR GROUP DISCUSSION
Group discussion is an important platform for discussing the problems of business. Therefore, the need is that necessary preparations should be made before arranging group discussion. These are as under:
- Domestic Arrangements: The date, venue, time, and duration of discussion must be determined. A list of invites for discussion should be prepared so that they may be informed well in advance. The chairperson should also be decided.
- Paper Work: Minutes of the last meeting should be analyzed as to What decisions were taken in the last meeting, what has been done and what could not be done on the basis of these decisions, etc. A detailed report is prepared so that the target of this discussion may be determined. Charts and graphs may also be prepared if required.
- Purpose: Most important preparation for group discussion is to determine its purpose: What is to be achieved? What kind of discussion is it? Is there any need to consult some specialist on any subject?
- Contributions: It should also be decided: Whether there is any need for audio or video aids. Whether there is any need for a report from an expert? Whether the advice of top management is sought on any issue?
(b) RESPONSIBILITIES OF CHAIRPERSON REGARDING GROUP DISCUSSION
Chairperson is the person who presides over a meeting and discussion. He is responsible to ensure that discussion is held in a free, fair, and congenial atmosphere and all rules are followed. His responsibilities may be summarised as follows:
- Pre-Discussion: Chairperson is to determine the purpose of the discussion and to inform the members accordingly. He is to decide the date, venue, time, and duration also of the discussion. He is to prepare an agenda for the discussion.
- During The Discussion: Chairperson is responsible for organizing conducting and controlling the discussion. He should clarify the doubts and objections of all members. He should ensure that every member of the group should participate in the discussion. However, he himself should not get involved in the discussion. He should summarise and close the discussion.
- Post-Discussion: Chairperson should review the discussion held and evaluate the progress and findings of the discussion.
(c) RESPONSIBILITIES OF RECORDER (SECRETARY) REGARDING GROUP DISCUSSION
In every group discussion, there is a person who takes care of and maintains a record of the whole process of discussion. Generally a secretary works as a recorder of discussion. His responsibilities may be summarised as follows:
- Pre-Discussion: Secretary is responsible to arrange the place fixed for discussion and also to make necessary arrangements. He is to inform the members about the discussion. He is responsible for arranging and distributing necessary documents. He is to arrange for refreshments also.
- During The Discussion: Secretary records the attendance of participants. He listens carefully to the discussion and records its main points on a paper. He is to ensure that proper facilities are available during the discussion.
- Post-Discussion: Secretary writes up the minutes of the discussion and gets them approved by the chairperson. He is responsible for the preparation of minutes also. (BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers)
(d) RESPONSIBILITIES OF MEMBERS REGARDING GROUP DISCUSSION
Group discussion means a discussion among certain persons over an issue or a problem. Every member is responsible to ensure the success of the discussion.
Their responsibilities may be summarised as under:
- Pre-Discussion: Members should take note of the venue, date, and time of discussion. They should understand the purpose of the discussion and prepare their stand on it. Every member should consider what role he or she can play to solve the problem.
- During The Discussion: Members should have a positive and participative attitude during the discussion they should listen to the views of others attentively. They should remain attentive to the items being discussed. They held to make the maximum contribution, they can.
- Post-Discussion: Members should understand and realize their duties after the discussion is over. They should accept the responsibility assigned to them. They should maintain cooperative relations with others.
(e) BEHAVIOUR DURING GROUP DISCUSSION
How should the members behave during group discussion, is an important question? It may broadly be divided into three parts:
- Task Behaviour: Task behavior includes anything and everything aiming at the achievement of objectives of discussion. It includes: Proper analysis of information available, (i) Proper analysis of the problem, (ii) Developing alternative solutions, (iv) Choosing the best alternative, (v) Agreeing to a better solution, suggested by other members, if any, (vi) Evaluating and summarising the outcome of the discussion
- Maintenance Behaviour: It includes anything and everything aiming at making the discussion a success and maintaining mutual harmony. It includes: (i) Who will be the chairperson, (ii) Which members will participate. (iii) Who influences whom, (iv) Who contributes and who does not, (v) What can I contribute, (vi) Whom I can encourage to contribute, (vii) How can I support others’ proposals. (BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers)
- Self-Directed Behaviour: It includes anything and everything aiming at achieving personal objectives in the discussion. It includes: (i) putting and defend own position, (ii) Turning the discussion to the issue of your interest, (iii) To divert the discussion away from the issues on which you are weak, (iv) To block the proposals of others which may be against your interest, (v) Seeking support of others on your proposal, (vi) Trying to get recognition of your contribution, (vii) Withdrawing from the discussion. (viii) Monopolising the discussion.
Q. 4. Explain the meaning and objectives of the interview. What are the types of interviews?
or, What is meant by an interview? What are its types and objectives?
MEANING OF INTERVIEW
The term ‘interview’ means the meeting of two or more persons faces to face. The interview is an important practice related to business communication. It is a formal meeting between two or more persons. In present days, the interview is an important and common part of the selection process. In this process, various questions are asked of the candidates to identify their knowledge and abilities. It is a process of checking the nature, interest, common sense, capability, and motivation of a person through Oral discussion.
Key Points of Interview: Prof. Roger gave five points about a perfect interview:
- How are the applicant’s health, power, character, and figure?
- How educated and experienced is he?
- How much common sense does he have and how much can he use successfully?
- Does he have any special experience or mental qualities?
- What are his interests?
OBJECTIVES OF INTERVIEW
The interview is an important part of the selection process. This is a face-to-face meeting between candidates and selectors. It helps in selecting the right man for the right job. The interview provides an opportunity for the selectors to know the following facts about a candidate:
- Physical Make-up: To see whether he has any defect of health and physique which might prevent him from good job performance.
- Attainments: Whether his education, training, and previous experience are satisfactory for the job in question? How well has he done in his studies or previous jobs?
- General Intelligence: How much general intelligence does he display?
- Special Aptitudes: Has he any outstanding aptitude, such as mechanical aptitude, mental dexterity, or faculty in the use of words or figures?
- Interest: To what extent are his interests socially intellectual, practical, constructional, physically active, and artistic?
- Disposition: How well does he get on with other people? Does he influence others? Is he self-reliant? Is he a dependable man?
- Circumstances: What are his domestic circumstances? Are they compatible with success and satisfaction in the job in question?
ESSENTIALS OF A SUCCESSFUL INTERVIEW
The following are the essentials of a successful interview:
(i) Applications and attached certificates of all the candidates being called for an interview must be carefully analyzed and summarised before the interview.
(ii) If written tests were held, their results should also be analyzed and summarised.
(iii) A call letter should be sent to all candidates being called for an interview. This letter should clearly specify the date, time, and venue of the interview.
(iv) A list of questions to be asked should be prepared in advance so that detailed talks may be held at the interview.
(v) Interviewers must have an open and broad view. They should not have any pre-conception about candidates.
(vi) Interview must be held in a free, fair, and cordial atmosphere.
TYPES OF INTERVIEW
- Employment or Selection Interview: It is the most common form of the interview because the main purpose of an interview is to select a suitable candidate for a job. “Right candidate for the right job and right job for the right candidate” is the main object of an interview. In such an interview, the ability, knowledge, experience, and suitability of the candidate for a job are tested.
- Promotion Interview: It is an interview to test a candidate for promotion. It aims at selecting the most deserving candidate for promotion.
- Interview Regarding Complaint: If there is a complaint from the side of an employee, he may be called by management for an interview. The such interview is held to clarify or confirm the complaint. Such interview may be held if an employee is having any complaint regarding his job or supervisor or co-employee or organizational system.
- Interview for Collecting Information: Such an interview is held to collect information from workers regarding their performance or any other issue. Such an interview is held in the form of a discussion.
CONDUCT OF INTERVIEW
Though there is no hard and fast procedure for an interview, yet following steps are commonly adopted:
- Filing a Job Interview profile: The candidate is asked to fill out a job interview profile in which he furnishes detailed particulars of his education, training, experience, hobbies, etc. (BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers)
- Beginning of Interview: At the beginning of the interview, the primary introduction of the candidate is taken. The main aim at this stage is to let the candidate feel comfortable. Therefore, efforts are made to create a cordial and comfortable atmosphere.
- Middle of Interview: In the middle of the interview, different questions are asked of the candidate to test his ability, efficiency, and capability for the job. Questions at this stage should relate to the job for which he is being interviewed.
- End of Interview: At the end, the interview is summed up and the candidate is thanked for attending the interview.
Q. 5. Explain the meaning, and characteristics of the seminar. How is a seminar conducted?
MEANING OF SEMINAR
A seminar means a discussion in a small group in which a topic or an issue or problem is presented through oral or written reports. The main purpose of a seminar is to share the views and knowledge of members. The seminar is opened by a speaker who has made a deep study of the subject. He presents his views and other members discuss them. Attempts are made to draw a conclusion and to prepare a port. Seminars provide an opportunity for experts on a subject to sit together and discuss an issue. Many times, seminars have produced very fruitful results.
Characteristics of Seminar
- A topic or an issue is discussed with a small group of experts.
- The topic of discussion is generally of high academic taste.
- A seminar is a gathering of experts on a topic.
- These experts interact and discuss the topic. Efforts are made to draw some conclusion or solution.
- The seminar is a type of oral business communication.
CONDUCT OF SEMINAR
- Inauguration of Seminar: A seminar is inaugurated by a person of distinction invited by the organizers of the seminar.
- Organization of Seminar: A seminar continues for two-three days. It is divided into a number of sessions. Each session is to discuss a particular topic or a particular issue. A chairperson is appointed for every session. He invites participants to present their papers. After every paper, he invites questions and comments on it. Thus, a discussion is initiated on the topic. He moderates the discussion so that it may not become a heated exchange. However, readers are expected to read only the main points of their paper.
- Concluding the Seminar: At the end, different sessions of talk are brought together. Attempts are made to draw definite conclusions and to prepare a report. (BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers)
Q. 6. State the meaning of the presentation. Explain the concepts of individual and group presentation.
MEANING OF PRESENTATION
A presentation is a form of oral communication. It means the presence of an oral message to a listener or a group of listeners. It may be an individual or group presentation. (BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers)
FORMS OF PRESENTATION
- Individual Presentation: An individual presentation is a presentation where one speaker presents his message to the audience topic of the message is pre-decided. Such presentation is required when a supervisor is to instruct a worker or workers and a worker is to discuss his problems with his supervisor. It may again be of two types:
(i) There is one speaker and one listener.
(ii) There is one speaker and a small group of listeners.
- Group Presentation: Group presentation is the form of presentation where more than one speaker presents a topic. In this form, there is a group of persons to speak. The topic of the presentation is pre-decided. One speaker speaks at one time and all others listen to him. When he finishes his presentation, another speaker comes up. It continues till all the speakers present their views. In the end, the chairperson briefs the discussion and thanks the audience. (BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers)
OBJECTIVES OF PRESENTATION
A presentation is a form of oral communication. Important objectives of the presentation may be as follows:
- To demonstrate and to provide information about a product or a service or a system.
- To sell a product or a concept or an idea.
- To promote an attitude or a style or a way of working.
- To create an image of goodwill.
- To entertain colleagues or workers or sales force or customers.
- To suggest a solution to a problem or settlement of a dispute.
- To decide the future course of action.
- To advertise and promote a product or a process or a view.
KINDS OF PRESENTATION
Oral presentation may be of three types:
- Informative Presentation: Informative presentation is a presentation that aims at providing information about an idea or a fact. Audiences are informed about a product or process or service. Training is the best example of an informative presentation. Training teaches an employee how to do work. Another object of an informative presentation may be to persuade new employees, to follow organizational traditions, culture, and procedures. The informative presentation may be classified into three parts:
(i) Report: Report means a written explanation of an event. It is a systemic and objective communication of facts. It is an important tool in the hands of management. It aims at providing a clear and detailed explanation of an event or an issue.
(ii) Briefings: Briefings are the information that explains both the positive and negative aspects of a topic. It helps in decision-making. This term is used to explain the main points of a meeting or a seminar.
(iii) Instructions: Instructions are the guidelines to do work or to accomplish an object. Experienced employees instruct newly appointed employees so that they may know how to do their work and get benefits from the experience of old employees.
- Persuasive Presentation: Persuasive presentation is a presentation that is made with the aim that audiences may get a positive reaction from others. It motivates them to act or to believe. It provides information with authentic proof. Business needs persuasion at different stages and times. However, persuasion is divided into four parts:
(i) Policy: A policy is an instrument for achieving pre-determined objectives. It sets the lines of action for an enterprise and directs the employees on how to do their work. Policies persuade employees to take uniform decisions.
(ii) Procedure: A procedure is a guideline to do an act. It spells out the steps to be taken to achieve organizational objectives. Procedures minimize the requirement for direction and control.
(iii) Value Judgment: Value judgment is an attempt to answer the question “WHY’. It tells: why should a particular act be done, and what are the benefits of doing it. It helps the listeners to decide their response.
(iv) Facts: Facts are the actual information about an event. It answers: What happened, who did it, when did it happen, how much cost does it involve, etc. Facts help a person in deciding whether to invest in a particular project or not
- Goodwill Information Presentation: It is the presentation that tries to create awareness about the products, policies, and schemes of a company. It presents the topics which are liked by the public. Quiz contests, flood or drought relief funds, national calamities funds, schemes for adults and children, prize distribution, etc. are examples of goodwill presentations.
Q. 7. Explain the meaning and characteristics of report writing. How is a report prepared?
MEANING AND DEFINITION OF REPORT
A report is a systematic form of written communication. It provides some factual information that serves business purposes. It provides orderly and objective information in a planned manner. Some reports may be oral also. It has been defined as under:
“Report is the system of communication from someone who has information to someone who wants to use that information.” –C.A. Brown.
“Business report is a presentation for important business objectives to be communicated in a planned manner to one or more persons.” –Louis L.A.
“A business report is an objective communication of information in factual which fulfills a business purpose.” –Lesicar and Petit
Thus, the report is a form of communication in which a person provides orderly and objective factual information to others. A report is an important medium for exchanging facts, opinions, and ideas.
CHARACTERISTICS OF REPORT
- A Source of Communication: Report is an effective source of communication. Generally, a report is written, however, it may be oral also.
- Orderly and objective communication: A report is a formal way of communication. It presents the information in a systematic manner. It is supposed to be free, fair, and unbiased. It is supposed to reveal the truth and facts.
- A Part of Administrative Process: Report writing is a part of the administrative process by which a person communicates some information to another person or persons. It shows the results of some inquiry and perusal.
- Factual Information: A report is based on some research or an inquiry or an event. Being so reveals the facts of such a study. It may define a problem or suggest a solution. It presents facts on the basis of which conclusions are arrived at.
- Continuous Process: In a business, report writing is not a specific function. It is a continuous process. It is required on many occasions.
ESSENTIALS OF EFFECTIVE REPORT
- True and Fair: A report to describe the facts of a research or an event or an inquiry. Therefore, it must be true and fair. It must reveal all facts in an unbiased manner. It should be presented without any fear and favor.
- Clear: A report must be specific and clear so that it may be used in its true form. There should be no room for doubts. All the findings must be discussed clearly. (BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers)
- Brief and Conciseness: Report is a formal and official way of communication. Therefore, it should be brief and concise. All relevant facts should be included and the irrelevant matter should be avoided. However, clarity and completeness should not be sacrificed for conciseness.
- Simple and Effective: A report should be simple and effective. It should be prepared in a manner that it may be used by anyone and everyone easily and clearly. (BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers)
- Recommendations: Recommendation is the last but very important part of a report. Recommendations should be very specific, clear, and unbiased. They should be helpful in the accomplishment of organizational objectives.
HOW TO WRITE A REPORT OR REPORT WRITING FORMS OF REPORT
A report can be written either in a letter form or a memorandum form.
- Letter Form: A brief report can be written in letter form. It takes the form of a business letter. It contains three parts:
- Memorandum Form: It is a simple way of writing a report. It contains findings and recommendations. The writer of the memorandum has not followed the formalities of the letter form. It is more specific and to the point.
FORMAT AND CONTENTS OF A REPORT
Contents of the report may be divided into three parts:
- Introductory Part: Introductory part of a report contains the following components:
(i) Letter: It is a formal letter written by the writer of the report to the person to whom it is submitted. It provides a reference for the report also. It helps in maintaining a record of reports. (BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers)
(ii) Title Page: This page shows the heading of the report, the person to whom it is sent, the writer of the report, the subject of the report, and the date of submission.
(iii) Table of Contents: It provides a list of contents of the report. It shows the title and page number of all chapters.
(iv) List of Diagrams, Charts, etc.: It contains a list of tables, charts, diagrams, graphs, etc. It helps in having a look at the report.
(v) Abstract (Summary): If the report is quite long, an abstract may be given in the beginning for ready reference. It helps in getting a brief idea about the contents of the report.
- Body of Report: The body of the report contains the following parts.
(i) Introduction: A report starts with an introduction. It covers the following information: the need and purpose of the report, the scope of study, limitations, and qualifications of study, methods of collecting data, sources of data, etc.
(ii) Description of Facts: It is the main part of the report. It presents the report in detail under headings and sub-headings. It provides all facts, figures, and information. (BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers)
(iii) Conclusion and Recommendation: In the concluding part of the report, conclusions are presented in a systematic manner. It is followed by the recommendations of the writer.
- Addenda (Enclosures): If the report is quite lengthy, it includes the following also:
(i) List of references,
BCom 1st Year Effective Listening Question Answers