BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers
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BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers
Q.1. State the meaning, objectives, and principles of the Presentation.
Or, Define the term presentation. What are the stages of oral presentation? What are the principles of oral presentation?
MEANING OF ORAL PRESENTATION
The term presentation refers to a speech. With reference to business communications, presentation means a speech before some audience to tell about a product or service, or idea. It may be with or without the help of some companion. It is a way of oral communication having three basic purposes: To inform, To persuade, and To build goodwill.
The oral presentation is a routine affair of a business concern. It is required on many occasions, such as:
(i) Launching a new product or service,
(ii) Presenting a new business plan or idea,
(iii) Starting a training course,
(iv) Delivering a speech at a conference or seminar.
OBJECTIVES OF ORAL PRESENTATION
Important objectives of oral presentation may be summarised as follows:
- To Inform: The very first object of an oral presentation is to inform the audience about a new product or service or idea. Whenever a company launches a new product or modifies its existing products, it requires oral presentation. It is required before the sales force so that they may be informed and trained about a new product, as well as before the existing and potential customers so that they may be persuaded to buy the new product.
- To Persuade: Second important object of oral presentation is to persuade the sales force to put their best efforts to sell the product and also to the existing and potential customers to buy the product.
- To Build Goodwill: Oral presentation is to build, maintain and increase the goodwill of the enterprise. It should be repeated again and again so that the name of the organization and the image of its products may be maintained in the mind and hearts of customers.
PRINCIPLES OF ORAL PRESENTATION
The following principles should be observed during the oral presentation:
- Principle of Clarity: Oral presentation must be quite clear so that it may be understood by the audience in its real sense. Technical and literary words should not be used. The language and flow of the presentation should be very clear to understand and follow.
- Principle of Confidence: Oral Presentation can be effective if you have confidence in yourself and your audience have confidence in you. These two are complementary and equally important for the success of the presentation. It leads to effective communication and effective listening.
- Principle of Sincerity and Thoroughness: The person making an oral presentation should be sincere towards his duties. The presentation should be prepared in advance and practiced thoroughly so that you may present it in an effective manner. A thorough presentation is better received than a hurried presentation. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Principle of Friendliness: The presentation must create an atmosphere of friendliness. Audiences are receptive to friendly people. Interest, enthusiasm, originality, and flexibility are the characteristics that help in creating a friendly atmosphere.
- Principle of Specific Object: Oral presentation must be made with specific objectives. The entire presentation should move to achieve these objectives. They may be: (i) To inform
(iii) To persuade
(ii) To analyze
(iv) To collaborate
(v) To entertain, etc.
- Principle of Developing Main Idea: Main idea or theme of the presentation should be selected and emphasized upon. It should be put and discussed in the beginning. The main idea should be developed in a manner that it may make your subject interesting to the audience. So far as possible, it should be stated in one sentence. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Principle of Arousing Interest: Oral presentation must be made in a manner that should be interesting for the audience. If the matter of discussion is of the nature that it affects the audience directly, they will listen to you because of their own interest. But if the matter is not in the interest of the audience, it is up to you how to create their interest. People should be encouraged to take the subject personally. They should be convinced as to how it can serve their purpose. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Principles of Drawing the Attention of the Audience: Oral presentation can be effective only if the audience is fully attentive during the presentation. The following types may be used to get this purpose served:
(i) Language of the presentation should be simple, clear, and vivid.
(ii) Presentation must have a flow of thoughts and ideas.
(iii) Audience should be helped to follow the presentation by summarizing remarks at different points.
(iv) Transition from one idea to another should be emphasized.
(v) Matter of presentation should be related to the needs of the audience.
(vi) Questions or comments from the audience may also be invited from time to time so that the presentation may be participative.
(vii) Visual aids may also be used for clarification and stimulation.
- Principle of Adequacy: An important principle of oral presentation is that it should be adequate. On one hand, it should not be too lengthy, detailed, and boring. On the other hand, it should cover all the main points and serve all objectives. The contents, size, expansion, and subject matter of the presentation should be decided in a wise manner.
- Principle of Ending: The beginning and end of the presentation are equally important. About 10% of the total time should be devoted to the ending.
Before you start the ending section of your presentation, it must be made clear to the audience that now you are going to finish your presentation so that they may listen to you intently. At this stage, the main idea should be repeated. What you want your audience to do or to think, should be emphasized. Your final remarks should be interesting, memorable, and enthusiastic. You should leave your audience with a feeling of pleasure and satisfaction. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
Q.2. State the meaning of oral presentation. What are the factors affecting oral presentation?
What is meant by oral presentation? How can it be made effective?
MEANING OF ORAL PRESENTATION
The term presentation refers to a speech. With reference to business communication, presentation means a speech before some audience to tell about a product or service, or idea. It may be with or without the help of some companion. It is a way of oral communication having three basic purposes: To inform, To persuade, and To build goodwill.
FACTORS AFFECTING ORAL PRESENTATION
The following factors can help in making an oral presentation effective:
- Nature of Presentation: The nature of the message and its presentation are the primary factors determining the effectiveness of the presentation. From this point of view, the presentation may be of three types.
(i) It may focus on the viewpoint of the presenter.
(ii) It may focus on the viewpoint of the audience.
(iii) It may focus on the viewpoint of both the presenter and the audience. So far as possible, it should focus on the viewpoint of both sides.
- Audience Analysis: The audience is the receiver of the presentation. The effectiveness of an oral presentation is directly related to the extent to which it is understood and accepted by its audience. Therefore, audience analysis should be made both before and during the presentation. The more you know about your audience, the more effective presentation you can make. The characteristics and size of the audience should be studied well before the start of the presentation. Attention, response, and reaction of the audience should be studied during the course of the presentation. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Communication Environment: Place, stage, lighting, sound, background, etc. play an important role in determining the effectiveness of communication. Environmental noises should also be duly considered while planning a presentation.
- Use of Words: Words are the vehicles of communication. One and the same theme presented by different persons carries different impressions and effects. The words you select for your speech should add to your presentation and to the understanding of your audience. Suitable examples, analogies, and word pictures make the presentation effective and interesting. If you are talking to people having different amounts of expertise, the words you select must be simple, non-technical, and easy to understand.
- Use of Voice: Use of voice helps in delivering a controlled, interesting rational, and comprehensive message. The following points should be considered in this respect:
(i) Volume of voice should be according to the size of the audience and environmental factors. You need not shout to be understood.
(ii) Tone of your speech should be according to the status and attitude of your audience. Speaking softly increases the concentration of the audience.
(iii) Pitch of your voice should indicate that you have finished a particular point and you are taking up the next point. It makes the speech coordinated and effective. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
(iv) Speed of speech should be according to the need of the message. Speaking at one constant speed does not carry a good impression. The presentation should begin slowly and be speeded up as you get into the presentation.
(v) Specific points of your speech should be stressed.
- Semantic Barriers: Semantic Barriers are the barriers related to the language of speech. It should be simple and of common usage. It should match the standard and status of the audience. The better the language is understood and followed by the audience, the more effective will be your presentation.
- Cognitive Barriers: Cognitive barriers are the barriers related to the feelings, opinions, attitudes, behavior, and experience of both the presenter and the audience. The more similar they are, the more effective can be the presentation.
- Compliance: Compliance between the presenter and the audience makes the presentation effective. If the audience likes a presenter, the presentation will be more effective. If a person realizes that when the person with whom he has to comply with, is grateful to him, compliance gets increased. Another way of getting compliance is to start with a short prayer and go to a long prayer if you get a positive response. This is called the ‘Foot in Door’ technique.
- The personality of the Presenter: The personality of the presenter bears an important relationship with the effectiveness of the presentation. The following points should be considered in this respect:
(i) You should be dressed in a comfortable manner.
(ii) You should be having attractive posture. You should look comfortable, natural, alert, and attentive.
(iii) Walking during a presentation can be good or bad depending upon the need of the presentation and the way you do it. However, too much walking carries a negative impression. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
(iv) You should walk only when you are sure that it will add to your presentation.
(v) Facial expression of the presenter should be natural and convincing. Eye contact is very important in an oral presentation. It tells about the sincerity, goodwill, and flexibility of the speaker. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Answering Questions: At the end of the speech, questions should be invited from the audience and efforts should be made to answer them as straightforwardly as possible. If nobody is asking a question, it may be planted also because it will help in starting the question session. If you find yourself unable in answering a question, you should assure the audience to reply to it afterward.
Q.3. State the meaning of sales presentation. How is a sales presentation prepared?
MEANING OF SALES PRESENTATION
A sales presentation is a presentation made by a salesman before existing and potential customers with a view to selling his product or idea or service. In this form of presentation, the salesperson stands up in front or in the middle of a group of people and informs them about his product. He tries to present his product to the group, explains all the features and related aspects of the product to them clarifies their doubts, answers their questions, and persuades them to buy the product.
In this process, he uses pictures, graphs, and other visual aids. Sometimes he distributes free samples of his product also so that they may be inspired to use it and, if they feel satisfied, to buy it. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
TYPES OF SALES PRESENTATION
Sales presentations may be of two types:
- Persuasive Presentation: In the persuasive presentation, the salesman motivates the audience to take interest in the product. He presents the product before them, explains all the important features of his product to them, and persuades them to buy it. Sometimes, a persuasive presentation aims at changing the behavior or attitude of the audience.
- Goodwill Presentation: In a goodwill presentation, the main aim is to create the image of a product or organization in the minds of the audience. It may be designed to satisfy their ego and validate their commitment to organizational goals. Examples: Organising a camp for the treatment of a disease, sponsoring a match, offering donations in case of natural and national calamities, etc.
STEPS OF SALES PRESENTATION
Sales presentation plays an important role in the success of an enterprise. Therefore, it must be as effective as possible. The following points should be considered in respect of the sales presentation:
- Determination of Objectives: Before, drafting a sales presentation, its objectives should be clearly and precisely defined. It may be: To inform the customers about a new product or service or idea, to demonstrate the use of the product, to clarify the doubts and questions of the audience, to sell the product or service, or idea, to build goodwill of product and organization, etc.
- Audience Analysis: Central point of all presentations is the audience. Therefore, the need is that the following questions should be answered before going ahead with a presentation: Who are your audience, what is their social status, to what income group do they belong, what are their requirements, etc? (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Selection of Main Idea: The main theme of the presentation should be determined keeping in view all relevant factors. Your presentation may focus on the following points: Quality of the product, price of the product, use of the product, comparison of the product with that of competitors, the special scheme announced by the company, prizes, and gifts with the product, etc.
- Preparation of Draft: Now you have come to the stage of preparation of the draft. According to Murphy and Thomas, there are three stages of this process:
(i) Introduction: Introduction of a sales presentation may seek to draw the attention of the audience toward the presentation. It should state the purpose and direction of the presentation. It is represented by the word ‘PAL’:
P= Porch (opening remarks)
A= Aim (your purpose)
L = Layout (your agenda)
(ii) Text: The text of a presentation refers to its heart. In this part, the salesman will explain his product to the audience. Evidence and data to support your aim may also be given in this part. It may be arranged by dividing it into three or four main points. This part makes emotional and rational appeals to buy the product. Some bonus or gift or coupon schemes may also be announced in this part.
(iii) Conclusion: This part concludes the presentation. The main points of the presentation are repeated and the audience is convinced that they should buy the product. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Use of Aids: A salesman may take the help of graphs, Charts, and audio-video aids to make his presentation effective. He may explain things in a manner that it may be interesting and convincing.
- Demonstration: A salesman may demonstrate his product before his audience if he feels the need for it. It gives a professional image to your presentation. A number of studies and research have revealed that a professional presentation is perceived as better and more effective.
Q. 4. State the meaning and preparation of training presentations.
or, What is meant by training presentation? How is it prepared?
MEANING OF TRAINING PRESENTATION
Training presentation is the presentation made before new employees and workers with a view to training them so that they may accept and discharge their responsibilities more effectively and efficiently. A training presentation is generally a formal and informative presentation to inform, teach and train the audience. It helps the audience to follow organizational procedures and to obey organizational rules and culture.
PREPARATION OF TRAINING PRESENTATION
The following steps are adopted for preparing the training presentation:
- Determining Objectives: The first step in the preparation of the training presentation is to determine the objectives of the presentation. It may be: To teach the method of work, to demonstrate the use of materials and machines, to get new employees introduced, to acquaint new employees with the rules and policies of the organization, etc.
- Audience Analysis: The second step in the preparation of the training presentation is to study and analyze the employees to be trained. It should answer the following questions: Number of employees to be trained, the status of employees, requirements of the job, the purpose of training, etc.
- Selection of Main Theme: The main theme of the presentation should be determined. It may be: To teach the method of work, to improve the skill of workers to increase production and productivity, to persuade employees to follow and obey the rules and policies of the organization, etc.
- Draft of Presentation: This is the stage at which a draft of the training presentation is prepared. It involves the following three steps:
(i) Introduction: This part draws the attention of the audience to the presentation. It motivates them to listen, understand and follow the presentation. PAL formula may be adopted to prepare this part:
P= Porch (opening remarks)
A= Aim (your purpose)
L = Layout (your agenda)
(ii) Text: This part should contain the contents of the training presentation. It should be organized in a manner that may help in the accomplishment of the main purpose of the presentation. If some guidelines and instructions are to be followed by employees regularly in the course of their work, their copies should be distributed among them.
(iii) Conclusion: In this part of the draft, the main points and hints should be repeated in short. Precautions to be followed by them, if any, should also be repeated in this part. A small test may also be conducted after the presentation so as to evaluate the effectiveness of the presentation.
- Use of Aids: Necessary audio and video aids should be used to make a training presentation more effective. Graphs, diagrams, pictures, models, computer projectors, overhead projectors, etc. may also be used in the presentation.
- Demonstration: At the end, demonstrations may also be given in a training presentation. It may be given by senior employees, experts, trainers, etc.
Q. 5. Write a note on conducting surveys.
MEANING OF SURVEY
A survey is a method of collecting information on a topic or an issue or a problem. Business organizations usually require some information on a particular topic. The most reliable source of collecting relevant and valid information is to conduct surveys. The topic of the survey may be the Performance of employees, emerging competition, fall in sales, advertisement policy, labor unrest, deciding about a new product, entering into a new market, etc. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
TECHNIQUES OF CONDUCTING SURVEYS
There are two techniques for conducting surveys:
- Census Technique: Census is a statistical term that means totality. The Census technique of conducting surveys suggests that information should be collected about all the items of the population or universe. Example: If an industrial firm wants to measure the level of job satisfaction among its employees, the survey should cover all the employees of the firm. This technique is adopted when the size of the sample is limited and within the approach. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Sample Technique: Sample is a statistical term that means a small part of the population. Thus, under the sampling technique, only a certain number of items are selected and studied. The results of such a study are assumed to hold true for the entire population. This technique should be adopted when the population is large enough and it is not possible to study the entire population.
Example: An industrial firm producing consumer goods wants to study the satisfaction got by its consumers from a particular product that is used by about 3 Lakh consumers. In this case, it will not be feasible for the firm to adopt the census technique. Therefore, a sampling technique should be adopted. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
Objectives of Conducting Surveys
(i) To collect information on the attributes of the population.
(ii) To clarify relationships within the population.
(iii) To evaluate the effectiveness of the policies of the firm.
(iv) To study the extent and impact of competition.
(v) To evaluate the level of job satisfaction among employees.
(vi) To evaluate the performance of employees.
(vii) To study economic, social, natural, political, and religious factors affecting the firm.
Q. 6. Write a note on sampling. or, Explain the meaning and importance of sampling. What are the methods of sampling? How can it be made effective?
MEANING OF SAMPLING
‘Sample’ is a statistical term. It means a part of the population. When it is not feasible to study the entire population under consideration, a little part of such population is taken and studied. It is called sampling. The results of sampling are taken to be the results of the entire population. Examples:
(i) A firm is to study the satisfaction derived by workers from their job. There are 230 workers in the factory. A study was conducted on 30 workers.
(ii) A factory produced 10,000 units of a product in 10 lots. It is to be checked from a quality point of view. 100 items were selected (10 items from each lot) and checked. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
(iii) A truck full of bricks is to be accepted or rejected. A few bricks are taken and checked.
(iv) Level of blood sugar is to be tested. A few drops of blood are taken and tested
METHODS OF SAMPLING
There are four methods of sampling:
- Random Sampling: Random sampling is a method in which the units of sampling are selected on an arbitrary basis. All the units have an equal probability of getting selected. Thus, there is no bias in selection. This method should be adopted when all the units of a universe are identical and homogeneous. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Stratified Random Sampling: It is a modified form of random sampling. This method is adopted when all the units of the universe are not homogeneous. In this method, a universe is divided into a definite number of strata or sections, and then a certain number of units of sampling are selected from strata through random sampling. Example: A study is to be made on the dents of a college. These students may first be divided into different faculties and then into different classes. Now a selected number of students may be picked up from every class and faculty. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Quota Sampling: This method is a further modified form of stratified random sampling. In this method, a quota is fixed for every strata in advance so that a definite number of sampling units may be selected. Such numbers may be assigned on the basis of the proportion of different strata in the entire universe. It may be decided on the basis of other factors also as age, education, sex, religion, occupation, etc.
- Multi-Stage Random Sampling: In this method, sampling is done at different stages. At every stage, sampling units are selected through a random sampling method. Example: The impact of ‘Swaran Jayanti Rozgar Yojna’ is to be evaluated. First of all, a certain number of districts will be selected at random. Then out of these districts, a certain number of villages or blocks will be selected. Now a certain number of beneficiaries will be selected. These beneficiaries will be interviewed.
ESSENTIALS OF SAMPLING
Results of sampling are assumed to hold true on the entire universe. Therefore, the need is that the items of the sample should be selected carefully and it should be based on certain principles as:
- Adequacy: The size of the sample should be adequate. It should neither be too large nor too small. The size of the sample depends basically upon the size of the universe. It should represent the entire sample in a rational manner.
- Independence: Units of the sample should be independent of each other. It should not be bound by the inclusion or exclusion of a particular unit.
- Unbiased: Units of the sample should be selected in an unbiased manner. The person conducting sampling should not have any pre-conception.
- Homogeneity: If two or more samples are selected from one universe, they should be homogeneous in size, nature, and other characteristics. Only then they can be a base for comparative study.
OBJECTIVES OR IMPORTANCE OF SAMPLING
- Reliable Base of Study: Sampling provides a base of study. If the sample is selected scientifically, its results are supposed to be reliable and the sample is selected scientific results of the entire population.
- Saving of Time and Money: If the size of the universe is very large and it is not feasible to study all its units, it becomes inevitable to adopt the sampling method. It saves time, energy, and money. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Essential in Certain Conditions: Sampling is adopted in all the conditions in which the entire population cannot be studied. There are conditions in which only sample studies can be made. Examples: Blood testing of a patient, soil testing, testing of food products, etc.
- Suitable in Certain Conditions: Sampling is most suitable to study social, economic, and business problems because in all these conditions, it is not feasible to study the entire universe. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Intensive Study: Sampling makes intensive study possible because the units of the sample can be studied in detail. It is better to study selected items thoroughly instead of studying all the units with a bird’s eye view.
- Scientific Method: The sampling method is quite logical and scientific if the samples are selected on scientific bases. The results of sampling can easily be applied to the whole universe. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
Limitations of Sampling
Though sampling is essential in certain cases and desirable in many cases, it is not free from limitations. Important limitations of sampling may be summarised as follows:
- Biased Results: In sampling, there is every possibility of getting biased results. If the person conducting sampling has got some pre-conception, the results will not be free. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Limited Use: The sampling method is applicable only when the area of research is very large and high accuracy is not required. It is applied in cases where a census study cannot be made. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Difficult to Select the Sample: The reliability and accuracy of sampling are based upon the selection of the sample. It is very difficult to select a free, unbiased, and properly sized sample. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
Q. 7. State the meaning and method of collecting data.
or, Write a note on the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data.
MEANING OF COLLECTION OF DATA
Data means the facts and information related to an issue. Collection of data means the collection of such information and facts. It is the base of all surveys, research, and studies. Whenever a survey is to be conducted or a study is to be made, data are required.
METHODS OF COLLECTION OF DATA
From the point of view of the collection, data may be divided into two parts:
- Primary Data: Primary data is the data which is collected by an investigator himself from the statistical units of the universe. It may be called original data also.
- Secondary Data: Secondary data is data that is not collected by the investigator himself. It is collected from somewhere else. Such data is collected originally by some other person or organization. It may be published or unpublished data. When a person requiring it, uses it, it is called secondary data. In short, data is primarily for the person collecting it and secondary for the person using it.
Sources Of Primary Data
The following methods may be adopted for collecting primary data:
- Direct personal investigation
- Indirect method
- Estimates from local correspondents
- Questionnaire method. Sources of Secondary Data
Secondary data may be published or unpublished as under:
- Published Sources: Published data is the most important and commonly adopted source of secondary data. It includes the following:
(i) Newspapers, magazines, journals, and directories.
(ii) Publications of government departments and organizations.
(iii) Published reports of government commissions and committees
(iv) Data published by banks, insurance companies, and trade associations.
(v) Data published by local authorities.
(vi) Data published by research scholars and educational institutions.
- Unpublished Sources: Secondary data may be collected from the findings, analysis, and interpretation of research scholars, educational institutions, trade associations, and committees that remained unpublished.
Q.8. Write a note on the questionnaire.
Ans. The questionnaire is a method of collection of primary data. In this method, data is obtained by asking questions people. Investigator prepares a list of questions to be asked from different persons to collect the required data. Questions are designed in a manner that all relevant and necessary information may be collected and all the points of the problem may be studied. Generally, the questionnaire is in printed form in which sufficient space is left for answers. The questionnaire may be of two types:
- Questionnaire to be Filled in by Informants: Under this method, the questionnaire is to be filled out by the informants themselves. It is sent to them through post or any other media. They have to reply to the questions and return the questionnaire duly filled into the investigator.
- Questionnaire to be Filled in by Enumerators: Under this method, enumerators establish personal contact with informants. They ask all the questions from them and fill out the questionnaire themselves. This method is more reliable and effective. In our country, the population census is done by this method. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
Questions that may be Asked Through a Questionnaire
A questionnaire may have three types of questions:
- Closed Questions: Closed questions are very short answer questions. These may be answered in one word or Yes/No. Examples: Name, Date of Birth, Age, Sex, Nationality, Caste, Family Income, etc.
- Open Questions: Open questions are questions that are answered in detail. These questions may require a little discussion also. Example: Impact of globalization on your concern, measures of satisfying employees adopted in your concern, details of worth experience, etc.
- Rating or Ranked Questions: These are the questions that are to be answered by rating on a defined scale. These questions help in measuring the actual position and feelings of informants.
ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD QUESTIONNAIRE
The questionnaire is an important method for collecting primary data. The effectiveness and success of this method depend upon the preparation of the questionnaire. The following points should be observed while preparing a questionnaire:
- Clarity of Object: The object of the questionnaire should be definite and clear. It is necessary that such an object should be made clear to informants so as to obtain their full cooperation. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Limited Questions: The number of questions should be limited so that the informants may reply to these questions easily. The number of questions should not be so large that informants come to feel bored. It should not be so limited that your purpose remains answered.
- Simple, Short, and Specific Questions: Questions should be simple and specific so that the informants may reply to them easily, frankly, and specifically. The questions should not be long, difficult, and with a dual meaning. Uncommon and disrespectful words should not be used.
- Order of Questions: Questions should be arranged in a systematic manner so that the information collected from different informants may be properly analyzed and summarised. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- No Use of Prohibited Questions: Questions should not hurt the personal and religious feelings of informants. Questions of personal nature should also be avoided as for as possible. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Directions: Necessary directions should be given in the questionnaire so that the informants may not find any difficulty in replying to the questions. How to reply to the questions, how to fill in the blanks, at which address should it be sent, by what time should it be sent, etc., should be clearly directed.
Q. 9. Explain the techniques of group discussion and interviews for the collection of data. or, How are the data collected through group discussion and interviews?
GROUP DISCUSSION FOR THE COLLECTION OF DATA
Group discussion is a technique in which a group of a certain number of persons is formed to discuss a topic or an issue or a problem. They sit together, generally in the presence of an investigator or some senior officer, and discuss the topic or issue, or problem.
Every member of the group takes part in the discussion and puts his opinion or idea. They put cross questions also so that the opinion of every member may be discussed in detail. Investigator tries to collect relevant information from the discussion. Members of the group are free to put their problems before the group so that they may be discussed by all the members and practical solutions may come up for the problem.
The success of group discussion depends upon the interest and capability of members of the group. If all the members of a group are attentive, careful, and participative, it may be the best way to get the solution to problems. A good member can play the role of a good leader also if he is attentive and helpful. Successful group discussions may contribute a lot to the solution of business problems and in the planning for the growth of the business. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
INTERVIEW FOR THE COLLECTION OF DATA
The interview is also a technique for collecting data. The interview is a direct discussion and conversation between the interviewer and the respondent. It is a formal meeting in which different questions are asked of respondents on different subjects. The success of the interview may be ensured by observing the following points:
- The object of the interview must be made very clear to the respondent so that he may not have any hitch in answering the questions.
- The interview should be conducted in a co-ordial atmosphere. The behavior and tone of the interviewer should be very polite and persuasive.
- The interview should not be very long. It should be as long as to collect relevant information. If possible, the expected duration of the interview should be told beforehand. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Questions to be asked in the interview should be decided in advance and arranged in a logical manner so that the interest of the respondent may be maintained. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- It must be made clear to the respondent that the information provided by him will be used only for a specific purpose. Otherwise, it will remain confidential. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
Q. 10. What is an effective presentation skill? How can a presentation be made effective?
Or, What is meant by oral skills and visual aids? How do they contribute to the effective presentation?
Ans. Effective presentation skills may broadly be divided into two parts: Oral Skills and visual aids.
Oral presentation means a speech before some person on a topic or an issue. Murphy, Hilderbrand, and Thomas have discussed four types of oral skills:
- Extemporaneous: In this method, the speaker writes down the main points or outlines of his speech on a paper or card. While speaking, he takes only the hints from these points and delivers the rest of the speech on his own. This method is most preferred by the audience as well as speakers because it allows more eye contact with the audience. It enables the speaker to establish a good rapport and to move.
- Reading: This is a formal way of delivering a speech. In this method, the whole speech is written and the speaker reads it from beginning to end.” minimizes the chances of mistakes and allows the use of statistical data, authoritative quotations, etc. This method is commonly adopted, particularly in official meetings and conferences. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Memorization: In this method, the speaker memorizes a written speech and delivers it before the audience without any help. This method may be an effective style of an oral presentation but only if the speech is short enough to memorize.
- Impromptu: In this method, a person is requested or asked to give a speech extempore. He himself does not know that he may have to speak. He speaks ‘Off the Cuff’ without preparation and without a forewarning that you have to speak. Only an experienced person can give a such speech.
Visual aids are the aids to communication. The presentation may be with or without aids but if aids are used, they must be relevant, simple, and useful. Formal speeches and presentations incorporate visual aids. The usefulness of visual aids may be summarised as follows:
- Visual aids are a convenience for the speaker. These aids help him in remembering the details of the message.
- Visual aids are liked by the audience also because it helps them in understanding, absorbing, and remembering the information.
- Visual aids arouse interest of audience because they present the things visually which are difficult to describe verbally.
- Visual aids focus interest on the key points of the message and make them more interesting.
SUGGESTIONS FOR EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION SKILL
Murphy, Hilderbrand, and Thomas have given five suggestions for developing effective presentation skills:
- Pitch: Pitch, in a literary sense, means a hole. With regards to business communication, it means a small gap or rest for a while. In an oral presentation, the speaker should have some pitches in his speech. It enables the audience to understand that the speaker is turning to a new point or he wants to emphasize some point. The frequency and duration of the pitch should be changed according to the requirements of speech.
- Rate or Speed: It refers to the speed of speech. It is measured in terms of words per minute. Every person has a different speed of speaking. According to experts, a speed of 120-140 words per minute is most appropriate. However, it can be more or less according to the requirements of speech and the reaction of the audience. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Volume: The volume of speech should be decided according to the audience. It should be such that every audience can listen, understand and follow the speech clearly and precisely. It should not be very high or very low.
- Vocal Quality: Vocal quality refers to the style in which you speak. The effectiveness of presentation depends to a considerable extent upon the vocal quality. Whatever you speak, it should be polite and sweet. The flow of speech should also be smooth and effective.
- Pronunciation: An important factor determining the effectiveness of a presentation is Pronunciation. Pronunciation should be as correct as possible. It should incorporate local customs and traditions, wherever necessary. A word should not be pronounced incorrectly for the sake of giving stress to it. Physical gestures and visual aids should also be used to make the pronunciation clear and effective.
Q. 11. Write a note on speeches to motivate.
Ans. The presentation may be made with three objectives in mind: To provide information, to persuade people, and to build goodwill. When a presentation is made with the object of persuading people, it is called a speech to motivate. Thus, a speech to motivate means a speech to motivate people to do something or to follow something. According to Stanly Vance, “Motivation implies any emotion or desire which so conditions one’s will that individual is propelled into action”.
The following points should be observed while preparing a speech to motivate:
- To Find out the Needs and wants of the Audience: First of all the needs and wants of the audience should be established and the speech should be developed in a manner that may help in satisfying these wants and needs.
- To Determine the Driver: Needs and wants of every person are unlimited some of them are more aggressive than others. Efforts should be made to find out which needs and wants are more important than others. Speech should be designed in a manner that may focus on driving need and want. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- To Satisfy the Driver: Your speech should suggest some practical solutions to satisfy the driving need of the audience. It will help you in gaining the support and sympathy of the audience. (BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers)
- Use of Effective Presentation Skills: Your speech should make the use of effective presentation skills:
(iv) Vocal quality, and
Your speech should be positive, powerful, energetic, and driving. If the audience put questions or doubts, they should be answered with pleasure and confidence so that you may get a positive response from them.
BCom 1st Year Oral Presentation Question Answers