BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material: We provide to all the students of Bachelor of Commerce. BCom 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Year Business Communication Notes Study material, Business Communication question answers, sample papers, mock test papers, and pdf. At gurujistudy.com you can easily get all these study materials and notes for free. Here in this post, we are happy to provide the BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material.

BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material
BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material

Models of Interdependence

In the modern age of globalization, increasing costs and competition have compelled the industry to give more emphasis on the use of its highest capacity of production and output and the employees to understand the importance of group work. The economic capacity and policy implication explain the importance of conversation among different groups or among the members of the organization. Working efficiency and policy-related problems, which are concerned with important social elements, influence the thinking and behavior of the persons.

When the members of an organization/ group while communicating with each other, have a sense of interdependence, then this effect becomes more important.

There are two types of interdependence:

(i) Minimum interdependence. It refers to task groups that exist in one particular place. Their interdependence is minimum and is also called group interdependence. (BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material)

(ii) Maximum interdependence. It refers to the members of a group, having common thinking and feelings, and discussing with each other the accomplishment of each others’ objectives. Such interdependence is also of two types:

(i) Social interdependence,

(ii) Task interdependence.

In social interdependence, members of a group have interdependence for positive social recognition and identity.

In task interdependence, the members depend on each other to achieve material excellence or superiority. To achieve material excellence they work for or support each other also. (BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material)

Votes Model of Interdependence

The acceptance-based Model is based upon two events:

  1. Pseudo (Artificial) Events,
  2. Future Events,

1. Pseudo (Artificial) Events: Pseudo (Artificial) Events are those events that help a group organization or personnel to provide information about the future. In other words, a person or an organization tries to create an optimum situation to create an artificial event by various artificial information, which is known as Pseudo Events.

2. Future Events: Future events are those events that depend on the performance of pseudo-events. It doesn’t mean that only probable events will take place because there is a difference between probability and reality.

Paul. E. Lazarsfeld has explained the interdependency of Pseudo and Future events and their methods of measurement. It can be understood by the following example:

X and Y are two political parties from which A and B are fighting against each other. Both candidates are trying to attract the public by providing various information thinking that this information and forecasting will be in their favor. For this, both candidates will keep an eye on each other’s activities and form strategies for winning the election. If we had a survey of this election, we can get these types of voters:

(i) First Type: This type of voter are complicated. What they say and what they do is totally different, They always try to confuse the surveyor.

(ii) Second Type: This type of voter take a decision in the end and doesn’t want to answer the questions asked by the surveyor.

(iii) Third Type: This type of voter usually change their opinion or decision at the last moment.

But according to Lazarsfeld normally two types of probabilities arises:

(A) Bandwagon Effect: According to the election survey pre forecasted winner candidate “A” is having more voters than “B”, So most of the voters will give their votes to “A”. It is called Bandwagon Effect. In other words, If people start assuming that “A” will win the election, so the probability of his winning automatically increased.

(B) Underdog Effect: Candidate “B” was known as a qualified, able, and the best candidate, and because of these qualities he could win the election but coincidently he could only get voters’ sympathy and in the last round of voting he lost the election because of Bandwagon effect, this is called underdog effect. (BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material)

Leadership. An efficient and effective leader, by maintaining social interdependence, promotes the working capacity and efficiency of the organization. A leader plays an important role in achieving the objectives of the group and the organization. A leader can be constructive and also can be destructive to the organization. (BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material)

According to Lapier and Farnsworth “Leadership is the behavior that affects the behavior of other people more than the behavior effects of the leader.”

According to Terry George R., “Leadership is the activity of influencing people who Strive willingly for the achievement of group objectives.”

According to Koontz, Harold, and O’Donnell, Cyril “Leadership is influencing people to follow in the achievement of a common goal.”

According to Bitt, “Leadership is the process of mutual stimulation or reciprocal reinforcement which by the successful interplay of relevant individual differences controls human energy in the pursuit of a common goal.”

Fiedler Model (1967, 81)

Fiedler has given a contingency model of leadership, based on two assumptions:

First assumption. Leaders can be divided into categories on the basis of their capabilities. Two major categories or styles are-Relations-oriented and the other, Task-oriented. (BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material)

Second assumption. Situations for leadership differ.

The effectiveness of leadership depends on the leader’s ability to provide leadership according to his style and the situations available. A leader with a relations-oriented style will be more effective in situations where working requires more interdependence and conversation/discussion/dialogues. (BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material)

Such leaders are more effective where medium-level control is required. On the other hand, a leader with a task-oriented style will be more effective where difficult and heavy work is involved: and group work performance has to be increased. Such types of leaders are more effective in those situations where the possibility of requirement leadership control is either at a low level or at a high level.

Fiedler has shown in the above figure given on the previous page that when control f over the situation is at a very low level or at a very high level, then a task-oriented leader is most c effective and very effectively increases the work-capability of the group. On the contrary, F when the control over the situation is at a medium level, then a relations-oriented leader is most effective.

Fiedler says that a task-oriented leader gives priority to work execution because the self-respect of a such leader is directly associated with the execution of the work In the most difficult situation or when the control over the situation is at its lowest level, the task-oriented leader accepts the challenge makes himself committed to getting the work executed, and thus he is most effective.

On the other hand, the relations-oriented leader will try to maintain interpersonal relations of the group under the pressure of the situation at a low level of control, and as a result, the work execution will also be at a low level. So also, at a high level of control of the situation, the relations-oriented leader will try to get more popularity and honor through interpersonal relations and as a result will ignore the work executed by the group, and thus the execution of work will suffer.

In the case of medium-level situation control, he will try to gain popularity by paying more attention to work execution or the group, so that he gains complete control over the situation. In such a case his leadership will be more effective.

Thus, it is clear that according to Fiedler’s contingency model, under difficult complicated situations, task-oriented leadership proves more effective. Every style o leadership is not effective in every type of situation. Thus, the most effective leader is that who is capable of making a suitable change in his leadership style according to the situation. (BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material)

Whole Communication

Whole communication means wide or comprehensive communication. In this type of communication, all the elements of communication are included, like-feelings, values, opinions, etc. (Apart from the sender, receiver, channel, message, encoding, decoding, reference, and feedback) (BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material)

In a normal communication process, the receiver receives only the facts of the message. The sender’s body language, gestures, postures, expressions, feelings, values, and opinions are “ignored. Normal communication may carry confusion and errors and, therefore, may be wrong, because there are differences in values and feelings of sender and receiver and they affect the message.

In the whole communication following elements are included which make it comprehensive. They are as follows:

  1. Facts. Facts refer to events based on a person’s experience and are taken to be true.
  2. Feelings. It refers to the person’s mental process, attitudes, and expressions in a specific situation, condition, and time.
  3. Values. Values mean changing ideas of a person emerging on account of the effects of civilization, culture, and society’s norms.
  4. Opinions. It refers to a person’s attitude adopted in a specific situation, or condition, at a particular time.

Thus, when the above four elements are included in normal communication apart from its own elements, then normal communication is converted into whole communication. (BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material)

Example

Nikita. Govt. M.K.B. College has secured the first position in Youth Festival, 2002 (FACT)

Tanisha. ‘It has won all the competitions of the Youth Festivals.’ (FACT)

Nikita. ‘I am sorry that our Govt. Home Science College, which was the earlier winner, Lost all the competitions of the Youth Festival, just because of the lack of patience and coordination.’ (Opinion)

Tanisha. It does not matter, Mata Gujri College is the first non-govt. college to win the second position. Its participants have extra-ordinary potential and capacity to work hard.’ (Opinion) (BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material)

In this example “MKB College has secured the First position in Youth Festival, 2002,” has “been presented in the form of a fact. When a message is sent through a particular “channel and that message is received through some other channel, then confusion and errors are created. To avoid confusion and errors it is necessary to know that message is not merely a fact but includes feelings, values, suggestions, and opinions also. (BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material)

So, to be a successful and effective communicator one has to understand the importance of all these elements. To receive a clear and correct message, feedback, reactions, and effective listening is needed. While a receiver listens to a message, he is absorbed in thinking about his reactions so much that he is not able to listen to it in an effective way. For this, the receiver should make his listening more effective. (BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material)

In short, whole communication refers to receiving the transmitted message by the receiver through all the media. (BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material)

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BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Votes Model of Interdependence and Whole Communication Notes Study Material

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