BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material
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BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material
Communication is a continuous process that we find everyday in our daily lives at every stage and every moment. The systematic form of this process is termed as “Communication Process’. In the process the sender transmits the message to the Receiver. There are various other elements in addition to the Sender and Receiver in the process of communication. However, Parthsarthi has analyzed and brought forward the following main elements:
- Communicator or Sender
- Communicate or Receiver
Thus, it is quite obvious that there are two persons necessary to perform communication-One is sender and the other is receiver. The primary activity in a communication process is considered as the transmission of message by the sender or communicator. The message cannot reach the receiver without any medium.(BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
Redfield agrees with Parthsarthi with regard to the number of elements in communication process but has defined these with a nomenclature which is slightly different. The absence of any of these elements in the communication process will make the whole process incomplete.
In simple words, the process of sending the message of communicator to the receiver through an appropriate channel is called as communication process. However, in a business communication, the only main objective is to obtain a desirable response of message from the receiver.
Thus, to understand the process of communication one has to answer the following five questions:
- Say what?
- To whom?
- Through which Channel?
- Which what effect?
According to Louis Allen communication is a fourfold process that involves following:
According to Ernest Dale, the communication process is based on the following four factors:
- A sender.
- A receiver
- A message
- Motivational climate
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS IN ACTION
Communication is a dynamic process which has a chain of actions, reactions and responses, related to achieving specific objective or target. For example, if you wish to talk to your friend then you will be ‘Sender and now you will encode your thought or message so that it can be conveyed to your friend through an appropriate channel. Your friend who is ‘Receiver’ will decode the conveyed message according to his understanding and will react to it in the form of feedback. (BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
When you perceive the feedback that the message you communicated is understood by him in the same form as you wanted then only you will proceed further to send more messages. Thus, communication is a mental process, so in this process the capacity of communicator or sender to communicate and receiving capacity of receiver both are very important. For a successful communication process feedback plays a very crucial role. (BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
The following elements are necessary to complete the communication process:
Let us discuss these elements in detail.
- Communicator or sender. The whole process of communication revolves around sender and on the fact as to who is the Sender? What he wishes to communicate? For example, The editor of a newspaper plays the role of sender and also bears the total responsibility of communication.
The following elements are necessary for a good communicator or sender:
(i) Clarity of subject matter,
(ii) Purity of language,
(iii) Control of the group’s expectations,
(iv) Realisation that every word and gesture of the message reaches intact to the receiver. Thus, there is no place for a communication gap.
- Message. This is the most important factor in the communication process. Message can be defined as thought, idea or preconception of the sender that is formulated as a statement and is conveyed. As a message cannot reach the receivers by itself therefore it requires a medium or channel. The message gets transformed as per the selected medium. The message also gets affected directly or indirectly by the target group. (BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
A good message should have the following characteristics:
(i) Simplicity of language
(ii) Clarity of language
(iii) Compactness of language
(iv) Completeness of language
- Medium of communication. Message is communicated through media like books, articles, lectures, radio broadcast, television, cinema etc. The selection of appropriate medium depends on the message, sender and the receiver. If the distance between sender and receiver is less than communication process can be undertaken face to face with air as medium to transmit the message.
Various communication mediums are available to send and receive messages which can be enlisted as follows:
(a) Print media. Newspapers, magazines, journals, books, pamphlets, calendar, diary, advertisement etc. This media is limited to literate people only.
(b) Electronic media. Radio, television, film, internet, video, video conferencing etc, are included in electronic media.
(c) Traditional media. This media includes our arts, culture and our traditional folk culture like folk songs, folk dance, folk music, social functions, religious gatherings, fairs, international function, festivals a etc.
- Receiver or group. Receiver or group of receivers provide answers to question like-communication for whom? Message for whom? If a good message does not reach the proper person or the target group the whole process of communication goes futile. The receiver must possess the following:
(i) Ability to understand the information.
(ii) Interest to get acquainted with the subject matter of information.
- Feedback. This is the most important part of communication process wherein, it is necessary to know, whether or not the receiver has received the sender’s message in its original form. The reactions of the receiver or receiving group are expected are a confirmation of the receipt of the sent message. These reactions are known as ‘feedback’. There are various ways of getting feedback-surveys, interviews, questionnaires, letters and responses. Such reactions are gathered and analysed. On the basis of conclusions of such analysis, appropriate changes are incorporated in the message, if need is felt for it but the subject matter of sent message remains intact.
Suggestions for Sender in the Communication Process
Harris has given the following suggestions to the sender for an effective communication process:
- The sender should be free from bias and tensions of mind.
- Before sending message, the sender should analyse the actual contents of the message.
- Before communicating the message, sender should obtain all possible and relevant information about the receiver.
- Sender must ensure before communicating the seriousness of the receiver, i.e., whether or not the receiver is sensitive to receiving of the message. (BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
- The sender should communicate the message according to the objective of communication.
- The signs, codes, gestures etc. used in communicating the message should be easy to understand.
- Repetition of message or content of message by the sender helps in better expression so that the content of the message is perceived correctly. (BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
- A proper consistency should be maintained between the communicated thoughts and actions of communication.
- Message communicated by the sender must reach the receiver on time. In case it does not reach at the appropriate time or as per the requirements the receiver then it will create a confusion that will lead to distraction in effective communication process.
In a communication process, sender should encode the message according to the compatibility of the receiver and his capability to retrieve the exact message as was sent from senders and as a receiver receives the message by reading, listening and observing. Thus message must also be in the form of words, actions, visuals, or numbers. This is an absolute condition for effective communication.
Feedback is the response which is conveyed back to the sender by the receiver. When the sender conveys message to receiver he expects to get receiver’s reaction in return, as a feedback to the conveyed message. The receiver after understanding the message expresses his reactions and response to the same. This reaction may be favourable or unfavourable, and the same is termed as feedback in the communication process. Feedback helps the sender to communicate by sending and receiving messages in better and more effective manner.
Thus, feedback enables exchange of information and develops better understanding between sender and receiver. When a message is communicated by the sender to the receiver, the receiver tries to decode the message and understand what has been expected of him after he receives the message so that the receiver grasp the same what is required. The receiver may or may not give his reaction in context to the message, yet, it may be enough to confirm that the receiver has understood the message in its true or real form.
Feedback Process. In a communication only after message become effective with its feedback in return is received after the receipt of message. Feedback is said to be the most important element of communication process and on the feedback only depends the effectiveness of communication. Feedback is said to be present in the process only when the receiver gives his reactions on the sender’s message.
Feedback is the measuring rod of communication’s effectiveness. The communicated message gets evaluated and appreciated, and as per reactions, the message is modified to make it effective.
It is very necessary to know as to how the receiver, after receiving/understanding analysing the message, expresses his reactions. Analysis in this process is possible only with the help of feedback. (BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
An efficient/competent manager can be successful in effective communication in an organisation/business unit only with authentic feedback. Therefore, for an effective decision-making process, manager must be provided opportunity for getting the feedback.
- Brown says that a desirable quantity of feedback is very necessary for effectiveness of both-the communicator and receiver.
Thus, feedback or reaction is a source to know and understand the receiving of the message and its correct analysis/ interpretation. Desirable/appropriate/favourable modification of the earlier original message is possible in future only with the help of the feedback from the receiver.(BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
Feedback generates good relations and better understanding between seniors and subordinates because of two-way communication process in an organisation/business unit; and always motivates them for favourable working. Thus, the management of an organization/business unit cannot ignore it. (BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
It is clear that feedback is a specific technique of making communication more effective by making necessary modifications in the message. It is an important principle of making effective communication in an organisation through reactions in the context of facts.
Effect of Feedback
In the context of facts and effects the importance of feedback cannot be ignored by an organisation. Many researchers have made efforts to prove the effects and importance of feedback in the communication process. Hellriegel and Slocum have analyzed the effects of feedback as follows:
(i) As every action of the sender affects reactions of the receiver, in the same way every reaction of the receiver affects the acts of the sender in the communication process.(BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
(ii) In communication process, receiver’s reactions are termed as ‘feedback’ which provides more efficiency and competency to sender in achieving his objectives through.(BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
(iii) Feedback in communication motivates to make the earlier original message more effective. If no feedback is received then the message, communicated earlier, is not changed or modified.
(iv) In a communication process, the receiver, through the nature of his reactions/feedback, attempts to motivate the sender for further improvements.(BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
How to Improve Feedback?
Feedback has a specific importance in communication process. Feedback is the last but most significant and necessary element of communication process. Its effectiveness is crucial. Some experts have given directives and suggestions to make feedback more effective. Procter and Gamble, Exon, and other groups have suggested the following directives to improve the effectiveness of feedback in their training programs:
(i) Help. Feedback is helpful in understanding/knowing the behaviour of receiver. Knowing and understanding the receiver’s reactions helps in creation of good relationship, so that the sender can take appropriate actions by appreciating and analysing his earlier message in the light of feedback.(BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
(ii) Descriptive. The nature of feedback is basically descriptive. Because of it’s descriptive nature it is possible to make desirable changes in the earlier message on the basis of analysis of reaction. (BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
(iii) Specific. The characteristic of specification is present in feedback, which enables the receiver to have complete knowledge related to communicated message. It will be difficult to perceive/understand the communicated message, if the quality of specificness is missing.
(iv) Listening. Feedback is possible only when receiver is prepared to listen/know/understand the message and is having sufficient time to perceive the message. Feedback always depends on the receiver’s capacity to understand/know/perceive the message, and also on his ability to express his reaction at a definite point of time. (BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
(v) Time. Lesser the time consumed between communication of the message and receipt of its feedback, more shall be its effectiveness and advantages. Thus, the time factor is very important in feedback.
(vi) Specific behavior. Feedback always refers to some definite reaction or behaviour. It means that feedback should be related to some specific behaviour.(BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
(vii) Goal-oriented. Feedback is not related to the structure of message, but directly to the goal or objective of the message.
(viii) Control. In a communication process, the receiver must keep control over giving straight negative feedback, because negative feedback is always discouraging and depressive in communication.
Importance of feedback. In an organisation/business unit, feedback about the message from the receiver is very necessary to make the whole communication process effective. It is because of feedback that the sender is able to improve his performance. Effective communication is an important managerial quality, and feedback bakes it effective by controlling exchange of ideas and information in the process. To make the feedback effective and useful, criticism should always be taken as an advise or suggestion.
Criticism should rather be welcomed treating it as a solution to problems. Feedback is a motivating factor in the communication process. It is the last step and with it communication process gets completed and, therefore, no effective communication is possible without feedback.
‘Symbiotic’ means together, and ‘Interactionism’ refers to two-way communication mechanism. The basic nature of man is to live in a ‘group’ because he can fulfill his basic needs only by living in a group. Group, basically is of two types: 1. Formal, 2. Informal
- Formal group. This refers to work structure of an organisation. A group that is formed on the basis of work structure is a formal group.
- Informal group. This refers to groups formed naturally due to social or personal factors. A person joins such groups on the basis of self-interest, habits, hobbies, region, language, age etc. (BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
Interactionism. This refers to inter-related communication among various small groups in an organisation. Under this mechanism, there are various small networks of communication, and based on them a whole mechanism develops, which is known as ‘communication mechanism’.
Leavitt has given four types of communication networks involving five persons:
(i) Wheel Network, (ii) Chain Network, (iii) Circles Network, (iv) Y-Network.
Shaw has given five types of communication networks involving five persons. Four networks are like those of Leavitt, whereas the fifth is as follows:
(v) Common Network.
This is also called open communication, where each member of the group is free to have direct communication with each other.
In the above given Networks, wheel and Y networks are known as ‘Centralised Communication Networks’ whereas the other three-chain, circles and common are called ‘Decentralised Communication Networks. Working of circles and common networks is Slow and their capacity (competency) to solve problems is low (at a low level). Working capacity of wheel and Y-networks is more but the level of satisfaction of members is low.
Leavitt network is behaviourally more working-oriented, whereas the shaw network is person-centered. Centralised network is better suited for common working, whereas, Decentralised network is more effective for complicated working system.
In an organisation symbiotic and interactionism networks, together form the ‘symbiotic interactionism’ communication network. In this form of network, nature, size, spread area, location and structure of business functioning of an organisation play major roles. The nature and structure of this network differs from organisation to organisation.
Each organization or society has two dimensions:
(i) Functional, (ii) Structural.
Functional dimension clearly shows the working/activities and their outcome (results), whereas structural dimension explains the pattern of an Organisation/Society, at a given time. The first dimension explains the dynamic structure of an organization.
Inter-relationship in an organization is establised (possibly) at two levels
(i) Personal-social, (ii) Formal-business.
Happiness, unhappiness, satisfaction, pleasure, restlessness are expressed in Personal-social inter-relationship. These relations fulfil the basic needs of security, protection, communication and cooperation.
Formal business relationship explains the social need of joining each other.
According to Furber Bernard, members discussing with each other in a group communication network join themselves under a human-structure of society, where they feel more free to exchange their knowledge/ideas/strategy.
It means, persons or associates, with the help of these inter-relationship, execute their work, by expressing their ideas, thoughts, solutions, experiences, view-points, desires and by understanding the working of others determine the guidelines.
Factors affecting symbiotic interactionism. The major (main) factors influencing (affecting) a symbiotic communication network are as follows:
- Nature of communication. The nature of communication affects the network, as there are many types of communication, like meaningful, traditional, mutual contact, planned, organised, chit-chat etc.
- Structure of communication. There are two levels of communication structure Macro and Micro. At the macro level, we have the complete form (picture of information; and at the micro level we have the pattern of information including sentence framing, etc. Both levels influence the network. (BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
- Ownership of information. Ownership of information is generally in the hands of a particular person, and it is he who takes the decision of sharing or not sharing that information with others, according to his own wisdom (cognition)
- Formal chain of communication. The formal chain of communication network is totally controlled by high executives. Thus, the nature of communication is directional and authoritative.
- Specialization of work. Functional specialization and competency (skill) affect communication. Persons of highly specialised class are less communicative, and the persons of specialised class have their own way of communication depending on their ideas/emotions/techniques/objectives and style. (BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material)
- Structure of Authority. Functions and directions of communication are determined according to posts held by different persons, as to how and who will communicate. Place and post held is important in communication, because the type of (way of) communication depends on the post and status. For example, an office clerk communicating face to face with the General Manager will remain polite and formal.
BCom Communication Process Notes Study Material