BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material
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BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material
If we look into the past and compare it with the present, we find that communication techniques have undergone a drastic change, particularly during the past 50 years. This progress has been beyond imagination. The scientific and technical progress in communication is now termed an information explosion or information revolution.
The modern age has become the age of information technology. The growth of information technology in the field of communication is intricately linked to the growth of business, industry, and commerce. As the business grows new techniques of communication are developed and with that, there is further growth in the business. It is not an exaggeration to say that business and communication are complementary to each other. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
Modern forms of communication mostly include various forms of electronic machines and gadgets. During the first half of the last century typewriters, copiers, radio, and black and white television were in use, whereas in the second half of the last century electronics techniques and digital techniques developed. Electronic typewriters, telexes, word processors, offset computers, etc. gave a strong and powerful shape to communication. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
Today, new forms of communication, like computer, internet, satellite transmission etc. have become very popular and they are now the necessity of our daily life. For leading businessmen of the 21st century, information technology is the most powerful weapon to get success in the global markets. Toffler has shown the three waves of the historical progress of communication-
First wave. In the first wave, small groups had oral communication, or messages were communicated from mouth to ear. The world was devoid of newspapers, radio, T.V., etc. In fact, the system was limited to talking and listening. The only widespread medium of communication was to gather crowds and make announcements loudly.
Second wave. With the creation of wealth, the objective of communication was to cover long distances. So, in addition to oral communication, other media for communication came into existence, like written communication, dak, telegraph, telephone, newspapers, journals, magazines, films, radio, television, etc. Thus, the major channels of communication during second wave were newspapers, magazines, films, radio, television, dak, telegraph, telephones, etc. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
Third wave. This is now the third wave which is the age of paperless communication, where computer, internet, e-mail satellite communication, audio-video compact disk, computer floppy, etc. are in use for communication. This third wave has reduced the whole world into a global village by developing a worldwide communication network.
Modern techniques of communication have introduced a management information system in the field of business. To make the communication system more effective and useful, strategic management and consumer-benefit oriented attitudes are adopted and for that information is collected and transmitted continuously with modern means of communication.
Modern forms of communication. Based on modern techniques, the main forms of communication are as follows:
(i) Cellular phones
(iii) Video conferencing
(v) Electronic mail or e-mail
(vii) Citizen Band Radio
(ix) Intelligent Network
(x) Electronic Bulletin Board
From the study point of view, the following forms of communication will be discussed:
(i) Cellular phones, (ii) Fax, (iii) E-mail, (iv) Video- conferencing, (v) Internet.
(I) CELLULAR PHONES
‘Cellular’ is derived from the word ‘cell. These phones work with the help of cells and, therefore, they are known as cellular phones. The cellular phone is also called “mobile” as it is very small and can be taken along with you wherever you go.
There is an F.M transmitter in the cellular phone which converts the frequency of words into signals and transmits them.
In a cellular telephone system, a wide area is divided into a number of small ranges. Each range has its transmitter. Cellular phone has an antenna and when it receives a message it gives signals. The consumer pushes a button and it gets connected to the local transmitter of the particular range from which he gets the message or can send the message through radio waves. The whole system is self-operated.
It is a means of oral communication and can easily be used in the car. train etc. It can be operated in any part of the country and also anywhere in the world where you have this communication system. It is an important tool of ‘time management and a businessman can make his valuable time more productive. The cellular phone system is a boon in the communication process, particularly in earthquakes, etc. When the landline phone gets jammed. Cellular phones are very useful to those businessmen who have to travel a lot in connection with their business work. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
Advantages of Cellular Phones
- Cellular phones can be used while moving or traveling and also from anywhere. One can easily keep himself connected with others from anywhere and at any time. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
- During natural calamities or disasters like floods, or earthquakes when landline phones are out of order or damaged, the importance of cellular phones can be realized. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
- Cellular phones can be used to talk on other cellular phones or on landline phones.
- Cellular phones are very important in connecting people in distant rural areas.
- They are important in time management and thereby helpful in increasing productivity.
- Cellular phones are relatively more expensive instruments of communication.
- Cellular phone numbers are quite lengthy and usually of more than 10 digits and difficult to note down and remember.
- It is a very small instrument and there are chances of missing or losing it.
- Its wrong to use, particularly while driving may cause an accident.
(II) FAX OR FACSIMILE
Fax is a great achievement in the field of information technology. Through fax, any document-printed or handwritten, graph, chart, picture, etc. can be sent from one place to any other place in the form of a photocopy, with the help of the telephone network. It takes hardly any time to send the printed or handwritten matter in larger quantity to any place.
Word ‘Fax’ is derived from ‘Fascimile’ ‘Fase’ means ‘to make’ and ‘cimile’ means ‘like that’. It means to send a similar copy of the original. This system, as compared to another system, is faster and less expensive. In a situation, where the distance between sender and receiver is very wide, the use of this system is very useful and beneficial. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
Invention. Fascimile or Fax was invented by Alexander Lain of Scotland in 1842. In 1850, Frederick Backwell developed a similar machine. In France, the fax was developed in 1865 using a circular drum. In 1875, William Sempar of New York gave a new form to this instrument. It was in 1900 when Arthur Carn of Germany developed the first Fax Machine and in 1902 he used a photoelectric fax machine to transmit and receive photos. In 1907, he developed commercial photoelectric fax which was made in Germany. Later on, in 1910 it connected Berlin with London and Paris. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
In 1922, Carn transmitted a picture to America through radio. This picture was published in various newspapers in America. By 1980, fax machines were developed in such a way that they can serve their purpose in homes and offices. Today, fax machines have become multipurpose terminals, and there is the possibility of their use in e-mail in the future.
Mechanism. In the fax, first, the printed or written message is scanned. In scanning, the original image is converted into electric signals and transmitted. On the receiver’s end these electric signals pass through the fax recorder and the hard copy of the transmitted message is obtained. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
The detailed working process is as follows:
- Scanning. Most fax machines work on the principles of electronic engineering and use photoelectrical scanning system. Its main objective is to develop electronic analog signals and publish document pages and the images are analyzed into small particles, so electronic analog signals are created. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
- Recording. Like scanning, most of the recorders are of electronic engineering nature. Their shape is like a cylinder.
- Fazing integration. The transmitted message is restructured at the receiver’s end.
Satellite Based Fax Service. Earlier the fax services were performed through cables. Now it is performed through the satellite communication system. Its characteristics are-
Fax transmission in the wider area
* Reduced cost of channel
* Improved quality
* Obtainable by the top antenna
* Increased reliability of transmission
In the beginning ‘The Hindu” adopted fax service in 1969. Now, almost all the newspaper groups are using it.
Fax service is a very prompt and very inexpensive system. By fax, we can easily and promptly transmit printed and written documents in the form of photocopies to any concerned person. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
Today, the fax service has become an important part of our daily life. It is being used increasingly in health, business, trade, agriculture, banking, insurance, education, and various other fields. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
(III) ELECTRONIC MAIL
Just as letters are sent from one place to some other place by dak/post, so also letters are now sent through the computer from one place to other. It is known as e-mail. E-mail is a form of using the internet. Through e-mail, a message can be communicated from one place to another place faster than any other channel/media of communication.(BCom Forms of Modern Communication Study Notes)
The matter of the message or letter, that is to be communicated, is prepared by a word processor on the computer screen; then it is transmitted to the desired address by telephone network/cable network. The whole matter of the message or letter is exhibited on the computer screen/TV Screen of the concerned person at that address.
If necessary, the concerned person can take out its print also. If the concerned person is not present near the computer, then the matter of the message/letter is stored in the memory of the computer. The concerned person as and when he returns to the computer, can get the information that a message is in the memory and he can get it exhibited on the screen.
A person can type the message on his computer and send it to another computer by e-mail both computers are connected to the internet. E-mail is very fast. Time and paper is saved by the e-mail system and it is not expensive at all.
In 1960, e-mail was known as CBMS, i.e., Computer Based Messaging System. In 1974, Western Union got it registered under its trademark as ‘Electronic mail’.
Method of Sending E-mail. For sending e-mail in addition to computer and internet connection you require an e-mail address, and also software related to e-mail. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
If you want to send e-mail to some person then you first click on ‘Start’ of the windows and click on the sign ‘Programme’. Now the list of all the programs on the computer will appear on the screen. You will find ‘Outlook Express’ also in the list. After you click on ‘Outlook Express’ it will start. ‘New Mail’ sign will appear on the screen. Click it, and the ‘New Message’ window will open. In the box where ‘To’ is written, write e-mail address. Below “To’ you find a box CC, where you can enter other persons’ addresses if you are required to send messages to others also. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
Below this, you find the ‘Subject box in which you write the title of your subject matter and enter the whole message in the blank space. After entering the complete message, click on the icon ‘send’ on the left corner of the window ‘New Message’. If you are already connected with ‘Modem’ or ‘Internet’ then your message will immediately be transmitted, otherwise, your message will be stored in ‘Out box’ and when you get connected to the internet, the message will be transmitted. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
E-mail can be sent in Hindi also, but for this, a particular software is required. Such software as lip lite or l-lip are available on the internet. You can download lip lite from www.dac.org. or l-lip from www.nit.gov. in. Through them, you can easily, send your e-mail in Hindi, provided that the concerned software is also available on the computer of the receiver.
Method of Receiving E-mail. It is very easy and simple to receive e-mail. If your computer is having Outlook Express or any E-mail software, then after getting connected to the Internet, this software will search the message. If there is any message it will shine on the task bar of the computer screen. You can open Outlook Express and read your e-mail message.
For sending messages by E-mail it is necessary that the receiver of the message should also have E-mail facility. If the receiver’s e-mail address is not correctly written, then the message will come back to your own E-mail address. It is known as ‘Bound Mail’.
It is evident that E-mail is the most modern and inexpensive medium of communicating messages. You are not required to spend anything on paper, pen, ink, envelop, or postage stamps. Only sitting on your computer you can send your message addressed to any person anywhere in the world. Your message will reach the concerned person within seconds, let the receiver be miles away.
E-mail terminology in short.
ASAP-As soon as possible
IAE-In any event
FYI—For your information
BBL–Be back later
IMO-In my opinion
IOW—In other words
NBD—No big deal
TIA-Thanks in Advance
LOL-Laughing out aloud.
(IV) VIDEO CONFERENCING
Video conferencing is an excellent technique of audio-visual communication. People present in distant places communicate with each other as if attending a conference or meeting together in a meeting room. In this technique, not only is the communication of messages possible but also concerned persons can have lively talk among themselves, in which the body language like postures, gestures, facial expressions, etc. also helps in the communication of the message. Today, almost every district in India enjoys the facility of video-conferencing.
Video-conferencing is a substitute of face to face communication. Face-to-face videoconferencing can be accomplished in two ways:
(a) by using a computer, and (b) without using the computer.
The video-conferencing with the use of a computer is known as computer-conferencing, in which a computer, web camera, telephone connection, and internet connection are necessary. Video- conferencing, without the use of computer, needs digital web camera, video-conferencing machine, telephone, satellite connection, and projector.
- In video-conferencing persons sitting at distance places in different parts of the world communicate with each other as if communicating face to face.
- At a particular time, two different parties from two different places can confer with each other and thus, their continuous contact becomes easily possible.
- Through video conferencing, an organization can have very fast and direct communication with its various departments/branches situated at various distant places.(BCom Forms of Modern Communication Study Notes)
- It is possible to have both audio and video both types of communication of messages.
5 Through video-conferencing, it is possible to participate in meetings/seminars/ conferences without wasting time and money on long and tidious journeys. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
- With the help of video-conferencing, head office of an organisation can directly monitor by giving and gathering information to and from its all branch offices situated at various places. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
- High-quality images can be received only by incurring extremely high costs and therefore, this technology is not very popular.
- Video conferencing may be suitable for big organizations. It is not very suitable for small organizations because of the high costs involved.
Presently, some companies are trying for quality improvements in video-conferencing technology. Efforts are going on to prepare specific software, experiment with multimedia’s special effects, and improve internal mechanisms so that video conferencing becomes less expensive with better quality. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
The Internet is the most modern international communication system which creates, by connecting computers with the help of telephones, an international route for exchange of messages/information promptly without delay throughout the world. Internet takes care of our requirements whether they are smallest or biggest. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
In 1969, Advance Research Project Agency (ARPA) prepared a plan for USA Defence Department to provide data and information to its different departments. In this plan, satellite and cable network was used to communicate information and, therefore, the plan was named as ‘Internet’. In 1990-91, after the end of ‘cold war’, the internet was made available to the general public.
Today, the internet is present everywhere. ‘Internet’ word is derived from two English words ‘International’ and ‘Network’, which means international network. The strength of the internet as the most powerful network of communication can be described in the words of K.K. Sinha as follows:
“If we look at the speed and expansion of communication it took radio 40 years to reach 50 million people, TV and computer did this in about 13 and 16 years respectively. But the internet has reached 50 million people in just 4 years.”
The main divisions of the internet are as follows:
- Telephone and Modem
- Lan or Wan
- Satellite communication
- Cable network
To use internet, it is necessary to become a member of the internet service provider. In India, it is controlled by BSNL. Apart from this, it requires hardware and software. A PC multi-media Pantium microprocess or having 16 megabite capacity, along with WINDOWS terminal software, Internet Explorer is required for the internet. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
In addition to hardware and software; a telephone line and a specific modem are also necessary. The faster the speed of the modem, the better will be the utility of the internet. Presently, a new form of internet has come up in the form of Newton cable. Various companies are laying down optical fiber cables net for providing internet on TV from house to house.
The Internet has completed 10 odd years in India. Education and Research Network provided internet facilities for the first time in India, but it was in August 1995 when BSNL started providing internet facilities for commercial purposes. In August 1995 itself, the number of internet users in Delhi and its surrounding area was 32000. The number of internet users in India was 16.5 lacs by March 2002, and as per the Indian Internet Business Report of the Indian Credit Rating Agency, the number of internet users in 2005 is estimated to be 83 lacs.
Uses of the Internet. From internet we can get various kinds of information, but it is used mainly for the following purposes:
- E-mail. This facility of internet is very popular among the users. A person can transmit his message to any part of the world in a moment. This is a paperless facility that saves time and money, both. The sender and the receiver both should have the ID address on some Website like Yahoo, Hotmail, Rediffmail, etc. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
- Search Engine. This is used to provide concerned information to consumer. A person can find out the address of required Website easily. Yahoo, Google, Lycos are the prominent Search Engines today.
- Worldwide Web. This is next in popularity after E-mail. It is known as www. It is a way of providing information subject-wise.
- Telenet. Through Telenet, you can log in on any computer connected to the internet and work on it as if it is under your control. This is also known as Remote login. It helps in downloading any new and useful information from one computer to another computer.
- Pushnet. It helps in sending the message on Electronic Bulletin Board, where anybody can see it.
- Usenet. It helps in classifying the information available on the internet according to specific subjects so that persons interested in a particular subject can exchange information. It is also very popular.
- Chat Room. Its use has converted distances into nearness. In addition to unlimited chit-chat, you can see the concerned person on the screen with the help of a Web Camera and he can also see you.
- Intranet. Its use is limited. Only big corporates use to keep connected with its various branches and departments.
- E-Commerce. This facility of the internet has turned the whole world into a big market. You can buy or sell any commodity provided you possess a credit card. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
- E-Banking. It has started a new era in the field of banking. The use of e-banking, PC Banking, Tele Saving, and Mobile Banking is fast increasing. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
Problems with using the Internet. Today, the internet is a very popular medium of communication, but there are some problems with using it:
- Unlimited knowledge and information are available on the internet but the route, through which it reaches the consumer, is highly crowded. Its channels, i.e., telephone lines and cables are not keeping pace as their quality has not improved much.
- The worst problem is that of Hacking in which any person can steal your password and use your personal files and records and can benefit from them. During Kargil War, computer experts of Pakistan hacked some 250 Indian sites.
- Cyber criminals spread viruses that damage the working of computers.
- The Internet is misused for spreading interest in vulgar films and literature and have an adverse effect on the youth.
- The internet also gives information about techniques for making bombs which is very dangerous for the society.
- The Misuse of credit cards by criminals is also a big problem.
- Language is a barrier in the use of computer as mainly English language is used on the internet.
However, various steps are being taken to overcome these problems. For example, governments are trying to ban vulgar films and information on the internet. Computer experts are also trying to prepare software to filter and join in preventing the spread of such information. (BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material)
BCom Forms of Modern Communication Notes Study Material