BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material
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BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material
The Original forms of communication are mostly non-verbal. By non-verbal communication, we mean that the whole communication is performed without words. Non-verbal communication is more effective than verbal communication. It transmits 93 per cent part of the communication through emotional and sensual gestures or expressions. Most of us are able to communicate messages/information through our body language more easily than through words. From the point of view of the sender or receiver, non-verbal communication is more efficient than verbal communication. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
Non-verbal communication can be divided into many forms, but for the convenience of our study we may divide it into four groups:
I. Body Language
III. Para Language
IV. Sign Language.
Body language refers to communicating the message/information through body movements of various parts of our body conveying feelings and emotions.
Proximity refers to the transmission of message/information through places around, distant and subject matter around us, which means using the atmosphere/environment. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
Para language means communicating through the quality of tone, voice, slow or high speed of delivery of words, the style of speaking, i.e., characteristics of the tone of speech. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
Sign language refers to expressing our experiences, ideas, emotions, and feelings through signs, signals symbols etc.
A detailed description of the above forms of non-verbal communication is as follows:
I. BODY LANGUAGE
This is a form of non-verbal communication for which George Terry has given the term “Body language”. It includes the twinkling of eyes, biting and moving lips, clapping and other movements of hands, noddings of the head, etc. It is also known as ‘kinesics’. In this, a person sends his message to other persons or groups through interpersonal activities and movements.
According to J. Fast, protruding eyes for disbelief, rubbing the nose when feeling tense, crossing the hands for feeling secure, moving the shoulders up and down for showing that you are indifferent, putting the hand on the forehead for distress, closing eve-lids for proximity etc: are examples of body language. It is supplementary to verbal language because when it is linked with words being spoken then it makes the real meaning of the message of the sender clear. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
The opinion of scholars in the field of body language is that ‘words’ contribute only 10 per cent effectiveness of a message in the communication process, whereas pitch and tone of the voice contribute 40 per cent and the major contribution of 50 per cent is by the body language. Thus, the absence of body language will reduce the effectiveness of any message by nearly 50 per cent and the whole communication process will remain incomplete. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
Nature of Body Language
Body language is a natural process which is gained by self-practice. Although it is not totally controllable, it is controlled by social behaviour. Its characteristics are as follows:
- A person learns body language without any formal training. People can learn a verbal language for some years, but they are not much aware of gaining or learning body language. They are also not aware of its effectiveness in the communication process, although it is very effective.
- Although body language is uncontrolled, its expression is somewhat controlled by social rules and traditions. For example, nobody will smile at the death of a person. The use of body language differs from group to group and person to person. Some persons are relatively more efficient in understanding signs or symbols of body language than others. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
There are researches which prove that women are generally efficient and clever in transmitting and understanding body language.
Types of Body Language
- Postures. It refers to the ways of standing, sitting or lying. Different styles of standing/sitting/lying express different meanings. Even our leg movements convey many types of non-verbal communication. Postures and their movements express a person’s self-confidence, independence status and interests. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
For example: (i) When a listener is taking much interest in listening to a speech of a communicator, then he will sit erect and learn a bit forward. If a listener is restless and looking at the wristwatch or at the wall clock time and again, it means he is not taking interest in the speech.
(ii) Our facial expression clearly reveals when we are absorbed in deep thinking.
- Gestures. Gestures are related to the movements of our hands, legs, arms, torso and head. Hands, arms, legs and head movements communicate important messages without words. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
For example, (i) Trying to cut the nails by hand or teeth is a sign of our internal tension and depression.
(ii) Making a circle by joining the tips of thumbs and forefinger conveys the message ‘OK’.
(iii) By stretching the forefinger straight shows caution or direction or a place.
- Facial expression. It is an important part of body language. We receive a number of messages through non-verbal communication by looking at somebody’s face. “The face is the index of the heart.” Face clearly transmits the message whether the person is engrossed in thinking or otherwise face-to-face communication conveys messages without using words. Facial expressions convey happiness, anger, fear, depression or dejection. Smiling promptly conveys happiness. Expressions of lips and eyes and cheeks all convey a number of messages without speaking a word:
Facial expressions help in receiving feedback from the listener.
- Eye contact. This is also an important medium of body language. According to J. Fast, “Eyes are the most strong communicator.” It is an important element of face-to-face communication. It is well known that eyes convey a number of meanings in no time without using a word. Looking at a person continuously for a long time tells that you are taking interest in him.
Meeting of eyes shows honesty, but in some cultures and some traditions casting down of eyes is a sign of showing respect to the other person, and thus conveying that they belong to a different status. The person of lower status will cast down his look-in eyes in face-to-face communication. In some societies, women are not supposed to look into others’ eyes.
- Bodily contact. Pushing, holding, tabbing, hugging, shaking hands, embracing etc: are included in bodily contact. Its use expresses various kinds of relations and conditions. A bodily contact is a primary form of communication. The contact among the different parts of the body conveys the different types of communication. The place where bodily contact is performed also affects the meaning conveyed.
Moreover, who is making bodily contact with whom, and what is their relationship with each other, are the different aspects of bodily contact. For example, bodily contact between a doctor and his patient, bodily contact between wife and husband, and bodily contact between lovers, all carry different meanings in communication. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
Jones and Yabarg, on the basis of an analysis of nearly 1500 types of bodily contact processes, have divided them into five categories:
(1) Positive effect. Appreciation, respect, affection, consolation, training or sex interest.
(2) Livingness. Happiness, jolly mood, humour.
(3) Control. Attention.
(4) Ritualistic. For rituals or for religious needs, like well-wishing during marriage rituals or expressing grief at death by a certain type of bodily contact.
(5) Professionally task related. Related to routine work, like checking the pulse of a patient by the nurse or doctor.
Apart from the above, there are adverse effects and aggressive contact also, like sleep, hitting, pushing etc.
- Appearance. It includes clothing, hairstyle and its colour, ornaments, cosmetics, make-up etc. Although they may not seem to be directly related to body language, they do relate to the appearance of the face, and eye figure and thus meaningfully convey some meaning. These are related to a person’s occupation, business, age, social and economic status and nationality. In addition, appearance also includes the environmental set-up like internal decoration of office room or drawing room, walls, floor, windows, curtains, etc.
- Silence. To keep quiet and not speak, or not answer is also a medium of communication. Silence is an expression of approval or disapproval. For example, when one person is praising the other person and the person remains silent, then it means approval. On the other hand, if somebody asks a person to deliver a lecture and that person does not speak and keeps silent, then it means disapproval or refusal.
Thus, it is clear that body language assists verbal communication. We can say that body language is more vocal than verbal communication.
Advantages of Body Language
- Body language is the easily acceptable visual aspect of communication. It is helpful in receiving and decoding a message.
- Body language assists verbal communication. In fact, without body movements, face-to-face communication cannot be much effective.
- Body language makes communication more lively and emotionally effective.
- Proper application of body language makes the atmosphere of a business unit or organisation more favourable and effective.
- From a practical point of view, body language has an important place in our real life.
Functions of Body Language
The functions of body language are as follows:
- It explains clearly the feelings and objectives of a person.
- It helps in expressing closeness.
- It helps in controlling and expressing authority.
- It helps in showing the objective or target.
- It helps in applying rules, regulations and instructions.
Limitations of Body Language
Following are the limitations of body language:
- In non-verbal communication, facial expressions and gestures, body movements are not always reliable or meaningful and, therefore should, not be taken very seriously. Written or oral communication is taken more seriously.
- Signs/symbols of body language differ from person to person because of differences in cultures and traditions. Sometimes wrong or inaccurate meaning is drawn from body movements or gestures. Therefore, one has to be careful while communicating or receiving.
- If the listener or audience does not show any interest or attentiveness, then body language becomes ineffective in communication. So, one has to be extra careful in using it. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
- It is ineffective in large groups or gatherings. It is effective only in face-to-face communication between two or three or, four persons.
Effective Use of Body Language
The following things are important in making the body language more effective:
- We have to pay attention to pitch and tone of voice. When a person is sitting on both feet or sitting and holding his head straight keeping the upper part of the body erect, while listening intently it shows the is in deep thoughts. A person in tension can be easily identified. He will be moving his pen in his hand or moving his finger in his lock of hair. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
- A handshake is a very important gesture in the modern business world. A good and warm hand shake shows your energy, enthusiasm and status.
- Eye contact is a powerful element for making your personal impact on others. While listening seriously you should look into the eyes of the speaker to make direct contact with him. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
- In body language, we should keep in mind the level and class/category of the person with whom we communicate. For example, when talking to a small boy we bow down to look into his eyes. While talking to a person senior in age we take another posture. When talking to a superior officer, standing straight shows respect. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
- Gentle and reliable postures and gestures make the atmosphere of the organisation or business unit better and more effective.
- Non-verbal communication comes from within, i.e., from your self-consciousness. If we want to make our body language better and more effective, then we have to start work by developing our self-consciousness.
Body Language in India
Some examples of forms of body language in the Indian context are given below:
- While greeting, the palms of both hands are pressed together and gently put in front of the chest with a smile and slight nod of the head. Apart from showing affection and joy, it also shows regard or respect. This gesture is repeated while saying goodbye also. It is a typical tradition and culture of India. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
- According to age-old traditions, a man’s body contact with another woman, whether formal or informal is prohibited.
- Only the right hand is used while eating meals or while taking any food. The right hand is also used to indicate something and not the left hand.
- Slapping on the back with joy is an expression of friendship, affection and cooperation.
- Slightly bowing head with a gentle smile is a sign of agreement, which means ‘yes’.
- Touching the feet of elderly and learned people is a sign of deep regard and respect. But to touch shoes or footwear is not regarded as proper.
- To blow the whistle in a public place is a sign of anti-social and against good manners.
The space around us, and the arrangements of things around, is very important from a communication point of view. Under proximity, we study how we perform communication processes within the space around us and how we arrange things around us. The space around us, the various things around us and the way they are arranged, all have some specific meaning, which communicates itself. How a person arranges things around him and how he is using the space around him communicates without words. In other words, proximity is “Personal space language”, just as ‘Kinesics’ is body language. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
For example, let us consider the 1′, to 4 feet space area forming a complete circle around our body. We will have all our body movements inside this circle, and when we move, the circle around our body will also move with us. It means this space around you will move with you wherever you go. Whom do you allow to enter into this close proximity of yours? Your family members? Your close friends? Or some other selected persons to enter this close proximity?
In general, there is the likelihood of permitting only selected persons, and that too with no words or at the most only whispering. Other persons may enter this space only in special circumstances. Casual activities like handshakes, and patting hands on back are allowed to be performed in this space around you. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
Proximity is also known as ‘Personal space language’, ‘Time language’, or ‘Surrounding language’. Thus, there are three forms or types of proximity:
(i) Space language
(ii) Time language
(i) Space language. A person’s distance from the other person reveals their interrelationship and the nature of communication between them. Edward T. Hall has done very interesting and useful work in this field. As shown in fig. 8.4, a person. keeping himself in the centre of space around him finds himself surrounded by four types of space languages, (A) Intimate space language, (B) Personal space language, (C) Social space language and (D) Public space language.
There are two forms of space language-(i) Proximity and (ii) Orientation. In proximity, the distance between the communicator and receiver is about 5.5 feet, whereas orientation shows the standing or sitting positions of the persons. An intimate colleague or co-worker will sit beside or just in front of you. On the basis of such distance, four types of languages have been suggested by Hall.
(A) Intimate space language. In this, the distance between the communicator and the receiver is not more than 18 inches, thus all the physical activities of the communicator will be performed within the space of 18 inches. It expresses the possibility of physical contact. This circle generally includes family members, close friends and specific persons. Handshakes and pats on the back and other bodily contact activities are performed in this space circle. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
(B) Personal space language. In this, the distance between the communicator and receiver is from 18 inches to 4 feet. Informal communication, like friendly conversation, natural and self-initiated communication between colleagues and spontaneous and unprogrammed communication between personally known people takes place in this space language.
(C) Social space language. In this, the distance between the communication and receiver is between 4 feet to 12 feet. This space language is generally used for formal or official purposes. Most of the business is done in this language with less emotion and more planning.
(D) Public space language. It ranges from 12 feet to the distance up to which the receiver can see and hear the communicator. This language is more formal and represents the remote space. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
(ii) Time language. This is the second form of proximity. It involves the meaning we give to time, or we attach with the time. We mostly use symbols for the time, but the final symbolising of time is not always done with words. Now the use of the word ‘time management has become popular and it is now an important aspect of whole management.
In the 21st century, time management has gained much more importance. In the Indian context Any organisation–whether government, non-government or business, time is practised through calendar or time-pieces. Business people understand the value of time. There is a well-known saying that ‘time is money’ which shows how valuable is time. People in the West are particular about the time, whereas people in the East are less particular about it. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
(iii) Surroundings. This is the third form of proximity. Surrounding refers to the physical atmosphere all around. It forms into its own language. Surroundings have many components. Here we shall discuss the two elements of surroundings:
(A) Colour, (B) Layout and design.
(A) Colour. We know that different colours express different moods and behaviours and also different cultural backgrounds. In Western society, black colour is associated with grief and sorrow, whereas the bride puts on a white gown during her marriage ceremony. White colour is a symbol of peace which is universally recognised. This is all known as the language of colour. Thus, colour is an important medium of communication and, therefore, we should take extra care when choosing the colour for making effective communication.
(B) Layout and design. It is also an important part of non-verbal communication. The place where the office is situated, the layout of the office, the design of the furniture, carpeting etc. communicate some meaning. Layout and design have become important businesses. Layout and designing convey the mood, personality, external architect, status etc. of the person, group or organisation.
In conclusion, place, space, time, and physical environment, all are important components of non-verbal communication. Time and space language is supplementary to verbal communication. A larger space will compel the speaker to raise his volume of speech. A small and cosy space will direct the speaker to keep the pitch of his voice low. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
Thus, the availability of more or less place and all the body language easily joins itself to verbal communication to make it more effective. Time language also makes communication more useful and meaningful. Layout and design speak for themselves without words. It is necessary to have a proper understanding, experience and care should take to use non-verbal communication like colour, layout and design etc. To achieve this, it is advisable to keep in contact with the latest development in non-verbal communication through journals, magazines etc.
III. PARA LANGUAGE
Para language consists of two words. First, ‘para’ means ‘like’ or ‘similar’. Second, ‘language’ refers to conveying communication. So, Para-language means ‘like a language’. In this, we study ‘how’ a speaker says something, and not by ‘what’ he says verbally. How he expresses himself is the subject matter of para language, which includes its systematic study.
Para language is a type of non-verbal communication, but like all the other types, it is Very close to verbal communication, because it is concerned with how the speaker Speaks his words, i.e., his voice of words spoken. It involves those hints and signals in a person’s voice that gives us additional meaning, Voice possesses the characteristics and qualities of its sound which may be high pitched or low pitched, its speed fast or slow. It may be loud and forceful or barely audible. It may be smooth or disjointed.
With these dimensions, the meaning of the message is conveyed and made to understand. For example, high-pitched/loud sound represents anger and hatred, whereas soft, smooth and low-pitched sound convey love, affection etc.
We can understand the dimensions of para language with the help of the following example:
(i) I am a good student,
(ii) I am a good student.
(iii) I am a good student.
(iv) I am a good student.
(v) I am a good student.
In the above example, stress is given to a particular word in each sentence, and as this stress changes, so it changes the meaning of the whole sentence without changing the sentence. In the first sentence (i) The stress of sound is on the word I, which means I am the only good student and nobody else is not good. In the last sentence (v) the sound stress is on the word student, which conveys the meaning that I am a good ‘student’ only and not a ‘teacher’ or ‘instructor’ or ‘officer’. Here, the pronunciation of the word with different sounds, pitch, speed, tone and dimensions gives a different meaning to the whole sentence. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
We may have another example of wife and husband, where the wife says to her husband on his return back:
Now, one can draw various meanings that can be perceived by the receiver depending on ‘how these words are spoken to convey the feelings of the wife.
These feelings may be ranging from utmost joy to bitter hatred. The feelings conveyed through the message “You’re back” may be that of indifference, extreme happiness, sudden surprise, relief, shock or disgust, depending on how the words are spoken.
In addition to analysing the above feelings according to voice/sound and body language, in para language, expression by inserting words like ‘ah’, ‘oh’, ‘I see’ etc. are also important in conveying the feelings in any message:
Voice/sound is a powerful medium of communication because through it various feelings like relief, restlessness, anger, hatred, love, affection, sense of belonging, shock, surprise etc. are expressed. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
Main Factors of Para Language
The main factors of the Para language are as follows:
(i) Voice. Voice is an important factor because we receive the first signal through the voice. Through the voice, we can know about the sex, education, training, nature, and background of the speaker. Voice is of many types, like clear, gentle, harsh, melodious, sweet etc. If the voice is clear then the meaning of the message can be communicated effectively. Voice is very important in certain professions like music, announcement etc. The following characteristics of voice are important in effective communication:
- Pitch. Pitch refers to the increasing or decreasing of the tone. Monotonous voice fails to attract the attention of the audience, it makes them bored. High and low pitch, as and when required helps in attracting the attention of the audience and makes the communication effective.
- Speaking speed. At different times, different parts of the message are sent at different speeds. If simple information is sent at a slow speed then it will irritate the listener and the listener may ignore the information. On the other hand, if complicated information is communicated hurriedly at high speed then it would be difficult for the listener to understand it properly.
- Pause. To give pause at appropriate times in a speech is an important element of communication. It is necessary to give pauses at the right times as the wrong timings of pauses can change the meaning of the message or information.
- Voice volume. While speaking to a large gathering the speaker’s volume of voice will have to be high, but it would not be proper to speak with the same volume when the number of listeners is small. This volume depends on the number of listeners and its proper control is an important element of effective communication. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
(ii) Proper stress. Stress is an important part of a language because we can communicate the meaning of a message successfully by giving proper stress. It should be kept in mind that stress on particular words can change the meaning of a sentence. Stress on a word or part of a sentence is given to attract the attention of the listener. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
(iii) Mixed signals. Mixed signals in a message may change the meaning of the message or may create distortion or confusion in the message. The sender of the message should know how the message should be delivered and what type of words should be used to maintain consistency in a message. On the other hand, the receiver should concentrate on how the message has been sent and what is the exact meaning of the words. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
(iv) Overall impression of the oral message. Speaker’s speech or statements convey a number of pieces of information about him. Studies in para language tell us that the communicator and the receiver both have their own expectations. When these expectations are fulfilled then the message becomes effective age, occupation, personality, status, perception etc. of the speaker and the listener affect the whole communication process. A knowledgeable speaker should pay attention to the quality of voice, stress on the proper words, and pauses to be given in his communication. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
Advantages of Para Language
- Para language is included in the language itself. No message is complete without the para language.
- The status or situation of a person in an organisation or business unit can easily be known through para language.
- Para language explains the educational and cultural background of the speaker.
- Para language is also helpful in knowing the mental state of a speaker. The Speaker’s quality of voice, speaking speed, pauses etc. help the listener to perceive the message correctly. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
- Para language has an educational value also. An alert and well-aware listener learns a lot from an efficient speaker.
Limitations of Para Language
- Para language is ‘like’ a language, but not a language. It is a part of non-verbal communication. We cannot totally depend on it.
- Speaker’s voice quality and pitch sometimes mislead the audience, as it is difficult for the audience to be always alert to perceive it correctly.
- As the audience consists of persons from different societies and backgrounds, the oneness of the message is not possible in the oral communication process.
IV.SIGN LANGUAGE OR AUDIO VISUAL ELEMENTS
In the communication process, the communicator and the receiver mutually use some signs, symbols or pictures to communicate a message. Every language itself is an orderly and systemic series of signs and symbols. From the early times, human beings have been using signs and symbols to express their thoughts, ideas and feelings. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
These signs are of two types:
(i) Visual signs,
(ii) Audio signals.
Although smell, touch and taste are also tools of communication, the most effective and strong tool is visual. According to a Chinese saying, “A picture is worth a thousand words.”
(i) Visual sign. Visual signs and symbols are the most effective tools of communication. For example in the textbooks of geography, chemistry, physics, economics or commerce, graphics and various types of pictures and figures are an integral part of the book. These graphics, pictures and figures may be limited to a specific class or group of persons, but there are many visual signs and symbols which are universal and, therefore, this language also becomes universal. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
Similarly, red and green lights in traffic, on railways and at airports, and red lights outside the operation theatre in hospitals are universal signs. Ambulance and VIP vehicles very effectively communicate their objective by using lights without the use of a word.
The red colour is also a sign of aggressiveness and the yellow of clarity of vision.
Similarly, the colour of flag-white or black or any other colour expresses the feelings of the communicator.
It is thus clear that such signs or symbols are used which convey information just by looking at them. The message is received through these signs. For example, a lighted cigarette with a cross-over it indicated that smoking is prohibited. ‘Danger’ written in red colour near electricity transformers means do not go near them. There is no need to say anything or to write anything, just the visuals communicate the message.
(ii) Audio Signals. From the very beginning of our civilization, audio signals are being used along with visual signs, and the business sector has accepted them with ease. In olden times, jungle men were using different sounds of drumbeats for different types of audio signals in communication. Even today, while entering into a deep forest message is communicated through the sounds of drumbeats. In today’s modern world, drumbeats are used to communicate our feelings to others on various occasions. Drumbeating is an important part of many cultural activities. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
Today, alarm signals are used in various offices, like Fire alarms, Accident/Casualty Alarms, Air Raid Alarms, VIP Motor Code alarms, Machine Breakdown alarms, etc. Its main objective is to warn or caution the listener and to appraise him of the situation. The alarm of a clock warns us about the time and our work-time schedule. In today’s context, there is hardly any office without a burger, press button, electric bell etc, as these sound signals make the concerned persons alert about their work.
Advantages of Sign Language
Following are the advantages of sign language:
- Visual signs, like pictures, posters, photographs, graphics, etc, save verbal communication because a lot of verbal information can be communicated through visual signs. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
- Coloured paintings, photographs, posters, and graphics make the communication interesting and thereby motivate the receiver to accept the information. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
- They reveal the communicator’s mental state, level of intelligence and imagination, cultural background etc.
- Posters, paintings, and pictures are educative also. If the workers in an organisation are illiterate or not educated, then these audio/video signs educate them easily. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
- The poster is a very effective medium of advertisement. They immediately attract the attention of people.
- Audio signals communicate messages very fast. The sound of a bell or siren immediately warns or alert the workers about their action. i.e., to take precautions, start work or close down the work etc. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
- Audio signals are very useful in time management. Time tables can be scheduled and strictly followed with the help of audio signals.
- An organisation’s working system can be arranged with the help of signs and signals, like visiting charts, waiting halls, etc.
Limitations of Sign Language
Limitations of sign language are as follows:
- Audio and visual signs can communicate only simple and elementary important information. It is very difficult to communicate complicated and complex messages through signs. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
- It is not easy to prepare effective posters. It needs an efficient artist with imagination and vision, to perceive and understand the concerned idea or concept in its right perspective. (BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material)
- Sign language together with verbal communication becomes very effective.
- Sign language depends on the receiver’s perception. If he fails to understand the sign or signal correctly then he can be misled.
- It is not possible to repeat or correct it immediately, whereas it is easy to correct or modify verbal communication promptly.
BCom Non-Verbal Communication Notes Study Material