BSc 1st Year Lower Non-chordates Phylum Protozoa Sample Model Practice Question Answer Papers

BSc 1st Year Lower Non-chordates Phylum Protozoa Sample Model Practice Question Answer Papers

BSc 1st Year Lower Non-chordates Phylum Protozoa Sample Model Practice Question Answer Papers: BSc is a three-year program in most universities. Some of the universities also offer BSc Honours. After getting enrolled for BSc, there are certain things you require the most to get better grades/marks in BSc. Out of those, there are BSc Study Material, BSc Sample Model Practice Mock Question Answer Papers along with BSc Previous Year Papers.

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BSc 1st Year Lower Non-chordates Phylum Protozoa Sample Model Practice Question Answer Papers
BSc 1st Year Lower Non-chordates Phylum Protozoa Sample Model Practice Question Answer Papers

BSc 1st Year Lower Non-chordates Phylum Protozoa Sample Model Practice Question Answer Papers

Q. 1. Classify phylum Protozoa up to orders giving salient features and at least two examples of each group.

Ans.1. General Characters of Phylum Protozoa 

1. Protozoa are microscopic animalcules with a very simple organization.

2. These are unicellular, having one or more nuclei.

3. The body may be naked or protected either with the pellicle or with a skeleton in the form of a test or cyst.

4. The single cell of the body performs all the vital activities i.e. there is no physiological division of labour.

5. Animalcules may be “free living, commensal or parasitic. The free-living forms are aquatic, inhabiting fresh and salt waters. These may be solitary or colonial. The parasitic forms reside on or inside the body of animals and plants.

6. Nutrition may be holozoic (animal-like), holophytic (plant-like), saprozoic (subsisting on dead organic matter.), saprophytic (feeding on liquid food), or parasitic. (BSc 1st Year Lower Non-chordates Phylum Protozoa Sample Model Practice Question Answer Papers)

7. The digestion is intracellular and is accomplished inside the food vacuole.

8. Locomotory organs may be pseudopodia or flagella or cilia or absent.

9. Respiration and excretion are brought about through the general body surface. The contractile vacuoles help in osmoregulation and excretion.

10. Asexual reproduction by binary fission, multiple fission, and budding.

11. Sexual reproduction by gamete formation or by the conjugation of adults.

12. Encystment occurs to tide over unfavourable conditions and to help in the dispersal of race.

13. In certain animalcules, the life cycle is complicated and exhibits alternation of generations. (BSc 1st Year Lower Non-chordates Phylum Protozoa Sample Model Practice Question Answer Papers)

14. About 50,000 known species.


Phylum Protozoa has been divided into four subphyla:

Subphylum I.               Sarcomastigophora

Subphylum 2.              Sporozoa

Subphylum 3.              Cnidospora

Subphylum 4.              Ciliophora


1. Locomotor organelles pseudopodia or flagella or both

2. Nucleus one or many and of the same kind.

3. Asexual reproduction by binary and multiple fission.

Superclass (A) Mastigophora (Flagellata)

1. Simple, primitive, and with a firm pellicle.

2. Locomotor organelles flagella.

3. Nutrition autotrophic or heterotrophic or both

Class 1. Phytomastigophorea (Phytoflagellata)

1. Chlorophyll-bearing chromatophores present.

2. Nutrition holophytic or phototrophic.

3. Reserve food starch or paramylon.

4. Flagella 1 or 2 or many.

ORDER 1. Chrysomonadida

1. Amoeboid forms without gullet but with stigma.

2. Flagella is usually 1, sometimes 2, or 3.

3. Chromatophores 1 or 2, yellowish or brownish or yellowish-green.

4. Starch is absent but leucosin and fats may be present.

5. Siliceous cyst.

6. Marine or freshwater animals.

Example: Chrysamoeba, Chromulina.

ORDER 2. Cryptomonadida

1. Anterior gullet reaches upto the middle of the body.

2. Flagella 2 and unequal.

3. Chromatophores 2, yellow, brown or colourless.

4. Reserve food starch.

5. Stigma present.

6. Marine or freshwater.

Examples : Chilomonas, Cryptomonas.

ORDER 3. Euglenoida

1. Anterior end with anguilet or cytopharynx leading into a reservoir.

2. Flagella 1 or 2, and with mastigonemes.

3. Chromatophores numerous and green.

4. Reserve foodstuff paramylon and oil.

5. Stigma present

6. Mostly freshwater.

Examples: Euglena, Peranema, Rhabdomonas.

ORDER4. Volvocida (=Phytomonadida)

1. Small, with rigid cellulose covering and no gullet.

2. Flagella usually 2, sometimes more.

3. Chromatophores green and numerous.

4. Reserve foodstuff starch and oils.

5. Stigma present

6. Mostly freshwater, some form colonies.

Examples: Chlamydomonas, Volvox.

ORDER 5. Chloromonadida

1. Dorso-ventrally flattened forms with delicate pellicle.

2. Gullet present.

3. Flagella 2, sometimes 1 or more.

4. Chromatophores green and numerous, some colourless.

5. Reserve foodstuff oil.

6. No stigma.

7. Largely freshwater.

Example: Coelomonas

ORDER 6. Dinoflagellida

1. Small and planktonic; naked and amoeboid or with a thick pellicle or theca.

2. Flagella 2.

3. Chromatophores numerous, yellow to brown.

4. Reserve food starch or oil or both.

5. Stigma present; contractile vacoules 2.

6. Some are bioluminescent.

7. Largely marine; some parasitic.

Examples: Noctiluca, Ceratium, Gymnodinium.

Class 2. Zoomastigophorea (=Zooflagellata)

1. Chlorophyll-bearing chromatophores absent.

2. Nutrition holozoic or saprozoic.

3. Parasitic, symbiotic or free-living.

4. Reserve food glycogen.

5. Flagella one to many.

ORDER 1. Rhizomastigida

1. Small and amoeboid.

2. Flagella one to four.

3. Locomotion by flagella or pseudopodia.

4. Chiefly fresh water.

Example: Mastigamoeba, Dimorpha.

ORDER 2. Kinetoplastida

1. Small and more or less amoeboid in form.

2 Flagella 1 or 2.

3. Holozoic or saprozoic nutrition.

4. Solitary or colonial.

5. Parasitic forms living in blood.

Examples: Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Bodo.

ORDER 3. Choanoflagellida

1. Free-living

2. Colonial

3. A collar around the base of a single flagellum.

4. Nutrition holozoic.

Example: Proterospongia.

ORDER 4. Diplomonadida

1. Small, with a delicate pellicle and a cytostome.

2. Flagella 3 to 8, one forming the border of the undulating membrane.

3. Uninucleate, sometimes multinucleate.

4. Mostly intestinal parasites.

Example: Giardia, Hexamita.

ORDER 5. Hypermastigida

1. Highly specialized forms with numerous flagella.

2. Kinetostomes or parabasal bodies arranged in a circle or longitudinal

or spiral rows

3. Uninucleate or multinucleate.

4. Mouth absent, food ingested by pseudopodia.

5. Gut parasites of termites and cockroaches.

Examples: Trichonympha, Lophomonas.

ORDER 6 : Trichomonadida

1. Flagella 4-6.

2. One flagellum trailing.

3. Parasites in genital passage.

Example: Trichomonas.

Superclass (B). Opalinata

1. Body covered by flagella or cilia.

2. Nuclei 2 to many and monomorphic.

3. Nutrition saprozoic

4. Reproduction by binary fission or by gametes.

5. Parasites of frogs and toads.

Example: Opalina.

Superclass (C) Sarcodina (=Rhizopoda)

1. Body without definite pellicle.

2. Locomotion by pseudopodia.

3. Nutrition holozoic or saprozoic.

4. Asexual reproduction by binary fission.

5. Solitary and free-living; some parasitic or colonial.

Class 1. Actinopodea

Pseudopodia are axopodia with axial filaments radiating from spherical body.

Sublcass (1) Heliozoa

1. Spherical protozoans.

2. Pseudopodia (axopodia) radiating.

3. Body naked and differentiated into outer vacuolated ectoplasm and inner dense endoplasm.

4. Nutrition holozoic.

5. Mostly freshwater.

Examples: Actinophrys, Clathrulina, Actinosphaerium.

Subclass (2) Radiolaria

1. Perforated central capsule separating the ectoplasm from endoplasm.

2. Contractile vacuole absent.

3. Pseudopodia are axopodia or filopodia.

4. Skeleton of siliceous spicules.

5. Marine.

Example: Collozoum.

 Subclass (3) Proteomyxidia

1. Pseudopodia are filopodia.

2. Marine or freshwater.

3. Reproduction by binary or multiple fission.

Example: Pseudospora.

Subclass (4) Acantharia

1. Central capsule non-chitinoid and without pores.

2. Skeleton of strontium sulphate.

3. Pseudopodia are axopodia.

Example: Acanthrometra.

Class 2. Rhizopodea

Pseudopodia are lobopodia, filopodia or reticulopodia, without axial filaments.

Subclass (1) Lobosia

Pseudopodia are lobopodia.

ORDER 1. Amoebida

1. Body amoeboid, without skeleton.

2. Pseudopodia (lobopodia) short with blunt ends.

3. Ectoplasm and endoplasm distinct.

4. Largely fresh water, some parasites.

Examples: Amoeba. Entamoeba.

ORDER 2. Arcellinida (=Testacida)

1. Body enclosed in a one-chambered shell.

2. Shell with a single opening through which lobopodia protrude.

3. Free-living, found in freshwater.

Examples: Arcella, Difflugia, Euglypha.

Subclass (2) Filosia

1. Pseudopodia are filopodia, tapering and branching. 2. Body naked or with a shell with single aperture. 3. Ectoplasm not distinct. 4. Marine and freshwater forms. (BSc 1st Year Lower Non-chordates Phylum Protozoa Sample Model Practice Question Answer Papers)

Examples: Allogromia, Penardia.

Subclass (3) Granuloreticulosia

Pseudopodia are reticulopodia.

ORDER Foraminiferida

1. Large sized with uni-or multichambered shell.

2. Shell with one or more openings through which reticulopodia emerge.

3. Reticulopodia fine and branching forming a network.

4. Mainly marine.

Examples: Globigerina, Elphidium (= Polystomella).

Subclass (4) Mycetozoia

1. Body large, amoeboid and multinucleate.

2. Pseudopodia numerous and blunt.

3. Form sporangia with spores.

Example: Slime moulds.

Class 3. Piroplasmea

1. Small parasites in R.B.Cs. of vertebrates.

2. Do not form spores.

Examples: Babesia.

Subphylum II. SPOROZOA

1. Exclusively endoparasites.

2. Body with thick pellicle.

3. Locomotor organelles absent in adult.

4. Nutrition saprozoic.

5. Asexual reproduction by multiple fission and sexual reproduction by syngamy followed by spore formation.

6. Life-cycle includes both asexual and sexual phase.

Class 1. Telosporea

1. Spores without polar capsules or filaments.

2. Sporozoites elongated, microgametes flagellated.

3. Trophozoites with one nucleus only.

Subclass (1) Gregarinia

1. Trophozoites large and found in the gut and body cavities (ie. extracellular) of invertebrates.

2. Gametocytes show syzygy.

3. Zygote non-motile.

4. Male and female gametes merogamous.

5. Sporozoites found in sporocysts.

6. Parasites of invertebrates.

Examples: Monocystis, Gregarina, Nematocystis.

Subclass (2) Coccidia

1. Trophozoites small and intracellular.

2. Gametocytes dimorphic.

3. Sporozoites in sporocysts (oocysts).

4. Blood or gut parasites of vertebrates.

Examples: Eimeria, Isospora, Plasmodium.

Class 2. Toxoplasmea

1. Spores not formed.

2. Only asexual reproduction.

Example: Toxoplasmea.

Class 3. Haplosporea

1. Spores with spore cases.

2. Parasites of fish and invertebrates.

3. Pseudopodia may be present but no flagella.

4. Reproduction by schizogony only (asexual).

Examples: Ichthyosporidium, Haplosporidium.


1. Trophozoite has many nuclei.

2. Spore formation occurs throughout life.

3. Spores contain polar capsules with polar filaments.

Class 1. Myxosporidea

1. Spores develop from several nuclei.

2. Spores within two or three valves.

ORDER 1. Myxosporida

1. Spores large and with a bivalved memberane.

2. Polar capsules 1, 2 or 4; each with a filament.

3. Trophozoites amoeboid.

Example: Myxidium.

ORDER 2. Actinomyxida

1. Spores large and with a trivalved membrane.

2. Polar capsules 3, each with a filament.

Examples: Triactinomyxon, Sphaeractinomyxon.

Class 2. Microsporidea

1. Spores small and with a univalved membrane.

2. With or without polar capsule.

Example: Nosema.


1. Body organisation complex.

2. Presence of cilia as feeding and locomotory organelles at some stage in the life cycle.

3. Two types of nuclei-micronucleus and macronucleus are present.

4. Asexual reproduction by binary fission or budding.

5. Sexual reproduction by conjugation.

Class 1. Ciliata (Infusoria)

1. Protozoa with a definite form and size.

2. Body bounded externally by a firm pellicle.

3. Locomotor organelles cilia.

4. Definite mouth (cytostome) and gullet present. Anal aperture (cytopyge) permanent. (BSc 1st Year Lower Non-chordates Phylum Protozoa Sample Model Practice Question Answer Papers)

5. One or more contractile vacuoles present.

6. Have two kinds of nuclei-large macronucleus and smaller micronucleus.

Subclass (1) Holotrichia

1. Body cilia uniform.

2. Buccal cilia absent.

ORDER 1. Gymnostomatida

1. Body large.

2. Buccal cilia absent.

3, Cytostome opens to outside.

Examples : Coleps, Didinium, Nassula.

ORDER 2. Trichostomatida

1. Cytostome at the bottom of vestibule.

2. Spiral rows of cilia in vestibule; no cilia in buccal region.

Examples: Colpoda, Balantidium.

ORDER 3. Chonotrichida

1. Body vase-shaped.

2. Body cilia absent.

3. Funnel at the free end of the body with vestibular cilia.

4. Ectocommensal on crustaceans.

Examples: Lobochona, Spirochona.

ORDER 4. Apostomatida

1. Body with spirally arranged cilia.

2. Cytostome mid-ventral.

3. Parasites or commensals with complex life cycle, completed on to two hosts.

Examples: Hyalophysa, Polyspira.

ORDER 5. Astomatida

1. Cytostome absent.

2. Body ciliation uniform.

3. Parasites or commensals in gut and coelom of earthworms.

Examples: Anoplophrya, Hoplitophrya.

ORDER 6. Hymenostomatida

1. Body small and with uniform cilia on the body.

2. Buccal cavity with undulating membrane and adoral zone of membrane cells.

Examples: Colpidium, Paramecium, Tetrahymena.

Subclass (2) Peritrichia

1. Adult without body cilia.

2. Apical end with buccal cilia.

3. Sessile organisms.

ORDER 1. Peritrichida

Characters of subclass Peritricha,

Examples: Vorticella, Carchesium.

Subclass (3) Suctoria

1. Body sessile and stalked.

2. Young with cilia, adult with tentacles.

ORDER 1. Suctorida

Characters as of subclass Suctoria.

Examples: Ephelota, Podophrya.

Subclass (4) Spirotricha

1. Body cilia reduced.

2. Buccal cilia well marked.

ORDER 1. Heterotrichida

1. Body encased in lorica.

2. Body cilia usually absent.

3. Body naked with uniform body cilia.

Examples: Bursaria, Stentor, Blepharisma.

ORDER 2. Hypotrichida

1. Body dorso-ventrally flattened.

2. Body cilia at ventral side, forming cirri.

Examples: Euplotes, Kerona.

ORDER 3. Oligotrichida

1. Body cilia reduced or absent.

2. Buccal membranelles at front end only.

Examples: Strombidium, Halteria.

BSc 1st Year Lower Non-chordates Phylum Protozoa Sample Model Practice Question Answer Papers

BSc 1st Year Lower Non-chordates Phylum Protozoa Sample Model Practice Question Answer Papers


BSc 1st Year Sample Model Practice Mock Test Question Answer Papers


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