**BCA 1st Year Role of Algorithm Notes Study Material**

**Semester Wise BCA 1st Year Role of Algorithm Notes Study Material: **If you choose to do a Bachelor of Computer Applications, it is BCA. BCA is a three-year program in most universities. After getting enrolled for BCA, there are certain things you require the most to get better grades/marks in BCA. Out of those, there are BCA Notes and BCA Semester Wise Notes Study Material, Chapter Wise/ Topic Wise BCA Semester Wise Notes, BCA Notes Pdf Download, BCA Sample Model Practice Question Answers along with Previous Year Question Papers.

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**BCA 1st Year Role of Algorithm Notes Study Material**

**Algorithm:** The word algorithm comes from the word “Al-khowarizmi”, the Arabian inventor, and means recipe, technique, method, or procedure.

**Definition:** “Algorithm is a logical process of analyzing a mathematical problem and data step-by-step that can be carried out by a computer or for conversion of data into information”.

Or “Algorithm is a sequence of instructions designed in such a way that if the instructions are executed in the specified sequence, the desired results will be obtained”.

Certain operations must be performed on data for producing the required results. In our day-to-day work, our brain automatically performs the different algorithms by experience (known as heuristics) but not in an error-free and systematic way. But one has to be systematic and to the point (one must use an algorithm for processing on the computer because the computer does not know alternatives.

For example, we must read a record before using its content in calculations. Sometimes, it is necessary to perform an operation only if the data satisfies a particular condition. For example, the age of an employee must be greater than or equal to 18 years.

There may be more than one strategy (or algorithm) for solving a given problem. The selection of a particular algorithm is based upon such elements as type and availability of data, time and cost factors, and availability of equipment.

**BCA 1st Year Role of Algorithm Notes Study Material**

**Example:** Let’s say that you have a friend arriving at the airport and your friend wants to get from the airport to your house. Here are three different algorithms that you might give your friend for getting to your home:

**The Taxi Algorithm**

(a) Go to the taxi stand.

(b) Get in a taxi.

(C) Give the driver my address.

**The Call-me Algorithm**

(a) When your plane arrives, call me on my cell phone.

(b) Meet me outside baggage claim.

**The Bus Algorithm**

(a) Outside baggage claim, catch bus number 564.

(b) Transfer to bus 532 on the main street.

(d) Get off at Gandhiji marg street.

(d) Walk two blocks north to my house.

All three of these algorithms accomplish exactly the same goal, but each algorithm does it in a completely different way. Each algorithm also has a different cost and a different travel time. Taking a taxi, for example, is probably the fastest way, but also the most expensive. Taking the bus is definitely less expensive, but a whole lot slower. You choose the algorithm based on the circumstances.

In computer programming, there are often many different ways for algorithms to accomplish any given task. Each algorithm has advantages and disadvantages in different situations. Sorting is one place where a lot of research has been done because computers spend a lot of time sorting lists. Here are different algorithms that are used in sorting: Selection sort, Merge sort, Bubble sort, Insertion sort, etc. (BCA 1st Year Role of Algorithm Notes Study Material)

**Essential Properties of an Algorithm**

- It should be simple.
- It should involve a finite number of steps to arrive at a solution.
- It should lead to a unique solution of the problem.
- It should be clear with no ambiguity.
- It should have the capability to handle some unexpected situations, which may arise during the solution of a problem (e.g., Division by zero).

**Characteristics of Algorithm**

The algorithm has the following five basic characteristics:

**Input:**Any algorithm starts with certain statements to accept the input. The next set of statements would be regarding the process method, which are unambiguous and definite.**Process Method:**The processing method in an algorithm must be very clear and precise and should be workable.**Finiteness:**An algorithm should have definite steps and after executing all these steps, it should come to an end. It should never get into an infinite loop.**Effective Basic Instructions:**Every step in an algorithm must be exacted. This means that all operations to be performed must be very basic that they can be executed within a definite period of time.**Output:**An algorithm must produce an output or more than one outputs. Some other features are:

(a) Simplicity of logic.

(b) Efficiency with which it can be exacted.

(c) Adaptability on a computer.

**Steps Involved in Developing an Algorithm**

- Properly understand the problem so that a proper algorithm can be evolved.
- Study the outputs to be generated from the algorithm so that the input can be specified. (BCA 1st Year Role of Algorithm Notes Study Material)
- Design the process, which will produce the desired result after taking the required input data.
- Refine the process.
- Test the algorithm by giving the test data (input data) and see the output. If the desired output is not generated, make appropriate changes in the algorithm and repeat the process.

**Advantages of Algorithm**

- It is a step-by-step solution for a given problem, which is easy to understand for everyone.
- It has a definite procedure, which can be executed within a set period of time.
- It is easy to first develop an algorithm for a problem and then convert it into a flowchart and then into a computer program in the desired programming language.
- It is easy to debug.
- It is independent of programming languages.
- There are definite procedures to produce outputs within a specified period of time. (BCA 1st Year Role of Algorithm Notes Study Material)

**Disadvantage of Algorithm**

It is cumbersome and time-consuming (for programmers), as an algorithm is developed first which is converted into a flowchart and then into a computer program in the desired programming language.

**Example:** Develop an algorithm to convert an integer numerical score (0 to 100) scored by a student in a particular test into letter grades using the following procedure:

**Sol.** The algorithm is defined as follows:

**I:** INPUT the score of a student.

**II:** If the score is less than 33, then PRINT “E”: END.

**III:** If the score is greater than or equal to 33 and less than 45, then PRINT “D”: END.

**IV:** If the score is greater than or equal to 45 and less than 60, then PRINT “C”: END.

**V:** If the score is greater than or equal to 60 and less than 75, then PRINT “B”: END.

**VI:** If the score is greater than or equal to 75, then PRINT “A”.

**VII:** End of a program.

The above algorithm terminates after 7 steps, which explains the feature of finiteness. The action of each step is precisely defined.

In this example, each step requires simple comparison and printing operation. This explains the feature of definiteness and effectiveness. The input of the above algorithm is marks scored by a student and the output is the grade awarded according to the given range.

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