BCom Monetary Policy of India Notes Study Material
Monetary Policy of India Notes Study Material: We provide to all the students of Bachelor of Commerce. BCom 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Year Business Environment Notes Study material, Business Environment question answers, sample papers, mock test papers, and pdf. At gurujistudy.com you can easily get all these study material and notes for free. Here in this post, we are happy to provide you BCom Monetary Policy of India Notes Study Material.
BCom Monetary Policy of India Notes Study Material
MEANING OF MONETARY POLICY
Monetary Policy refers to those measures, which are taken by Reserve Bank of India to regulate the supply of money and credit in order to achieve the socio-economic objectives of the economy. Generally, monetary policy is concerned with the supply of money, the cost of money or the rate of interest and the availability of money. It is the policy statement through which the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) targets a key set of indicators to ensure price stability in the economy. These factors include:
(i) Money supply (commonly referred to as M3)
(ii) Interest rates
Besides, the monetary policy also provides a platform for the apex bank to announce norms for financial bodies governed by the RBI such as banks, financial institutions, non-banking finance companies, residual non-banking companies, nidhis, and primary dealers in money market and authorized dealers in foreign exchange market. The monetary policy has an important affect on GDP, rate of inflation and growth. The monetary policy also influences the business prospects, the availability of credit and its cost. Investment decisions are also determined by monetary policy because aggregate demand and supply can be regulated by controlling and regulating money supply in the system.
Finally, we can say that, the role and purpose of monetary policy is proper managing the money stock in the system for the realisation of economic goals. D. C. Rowan has defined monetary policy as “discretionary act undertaken by the authorities designed to influence (a) the supply of money, (b) cost of money or rate of interest, (c) the availability of money.”
H.C. Johnson, defines monetary policy as “policy employing Central Bank’s control of the supply of money as an instrument for achieving the objectives of general economic policy.”
OBJECTIVES OF MONETARY POLICY
The banking system in India is functioning within the orbit of monetary credit policy of the RBI. Followings are the main objectives of monetary policy:
- A Suitable Price Governance: Price stability is the first objective of monetary policy. If a country wants to avoid too much inflation in prices, it may design its monetary policy in such a manner that the prices remain stable. However, rising prices at a low rate, may be found desirable from the point of view of production. So that, if the basic aim of the economy is to improve the level of investment, employment and output, monetary policy would be geared towards this end and this would allow supply of money to increase in such a manner that prices rise in a gradual manner.
- To Accelerate Economic Growth: It is a long-term objective of monetary policy. Through monetary policy Government ensures adequate flow of moon into desirable investment channels like infrastructure, building, industries In this tune, the Reserve Bank of India has made the allocation of funds respective sectors according to the planning requirements and for day to day development.(BCom Monetary Policy of India Notes Study Material)
- Exchange Rate Stability: It is an important objective of monetary The RBI tries to maintain stability in exchange rate through expansion in exports, reduction in imports and discourage outward capital movement. Normally exchange stability is not possible without price stability.
- Attainment of Full Employment: It is desirable to attainment of employment in economy. It can be pursued through the increase in rate of saving and investment. A balanced monetary policy helps to maintain price stability economy and creates a positive environment for investment that facilitates employment opportunities in economy.
- Economic Equality and Social Justice: Monetary policy aims at providing more funds to priority sectors like agriculture, medium and small enterprises, weaker section of society etc. to promote economic equality and social justice.
INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY
The RBI has used following instruments to carry out his objective of monetary policy:
(A) Quantitative Instruments
(i) Bank Rate: Bank rate refers to the interest rate at which the Central Bank (RBI) gives short-term loans to other banks against the backing of approved securities. In broader sence, “it refers to the minimum rate at white the Central Bank provides financial accommodation to commercial banks in the discharge of its functions as lender of the last resort.” It is a important instrument through which RBI regulates money supply. In case of inflation RBI. increases Bank rate. Higher Bank rate make credit costly, resulting into shrinkage of credit. During deflation RBI decreases bank rate and it facilitates cheap credit facilities by commercial banks in market. It increases money supply and accelerates economic growth.(BCom Monetary Policy of India Notes Study Material)
(ii) Open Market Operations: Open market operations refers to the sale and purchase of securities, short-term commercial bills and foreign exchange the RBI. To increase money supply, the central bank purchases Govt. Securities from bank and public. Conversely, when the central bank sells securities to the banks, the deposits in the banks would get reduced resulting in contraction of credit and reduction in money supply. Thus OMO cause direct pumping in or draining out the legal tender money from the market.
(iii) Cash Reserve Ratio: The variation in the cash reserve ratio is another instrument of credit control. As per the RBI Act, 1934, the commercial banks have to keep certain minimum cash reserve with the RBL So, commercial banks maintain a certain percentage of their deposits in the form of balances with the Central bank which is known as Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR). The method of CRR is one of the most effective and direct method of credit control.
In a situation of inflation or excess of demand, RBI increases the Cash Reserve Ratio. This will reduce cash deposits with commercial bank and it minimizes credit creation. During depression Reserve Bank of India reduces the CRR so that the credit creation power of commercial banks shall increase. At present the CRR rate is 4% as of Sept. 2014.
(iv) Statutory Liquidity Raito: As per RBI Act, 1934 all commercial banks have to maintain (under section 24 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949) liquid assets in the form of cash, gold and unencumbered approved securities equal to not less than 25% on their total demand and time deposit liabilities.
In a situation, of inflation or excess demand, RBI raises the SLR. The result is the reduction in surplus cash reserves of commercial banks which reduces credit facilities of commercial banks. On the other hand, RBI reduces SLR rate it creates expansionary effect on the credit position of banks. The current SLR is 21.5% w.e.f. 03/02/2015.(BCom Monetary Policy of India Notes Study Material)
(v) Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate: Repo rate is the rate at which RBI lends to commercial banks generally against commercial securities. Reductions in repo rate helps the commercial banks to get money at a cheaper rate and increase in repo rate discourage the commercial banks to get money as the rate increases and become expensive.(BCom Monetary Policy of India Notes Study Material)
Reverse repo rate is the rate at which RBI borrow money from commercial banks. The increase in the reverse repo will increase the cost of borrowing and lending of the banks which will discourage the public to borrow money and will encourage them to deposit. As on 30th September, 2015, the repo rate is 6.75% and reverse repo rate is 6.25%
(B) Qualitative Credit Control
This also called ‘Selective Credit Control. It refers to regulate credit to a specific commodity or areas not for the whole economy. Following measures are to be taken for selective control:
(i) Regulation of Marginal Requirements on Loans: Reserve Bank of India fix the marginal money to be kept by commercial banks while lending the loans. The basic aim of this method is to restrict the use of credit to purchase or carry securities. By regulation of marginal requirements, RBI increases margin money against those commodities whose prices were rising. A higher margin is used in price rise while lower margin is used in deflationary situation.
In other words, under regulatory effort, the Reserve Bank can control credit by increasing the margins and expand credit by reducing the margin requirements.
(ii) Regulation of Consumer Credit: It is another method of selective credit control to check the inflationary pressure in the economy. Under which credit control restrictions are imposed on consumer credit given to the consumers for the purchase of durable goods. Consumer credit schemes are offered by banks for easy purchase of consumer durable goods. For this a certain amount is paid by customer in cash and the balance amount is financed by the bank through bank credit repayable in monthly installments over a period of time.
The RBI can control credit through banks by increasing down payment and reducing the number of installments. On contrary, it can expand credit creation by reducing down payment and increasing down payment and increasing number of installments.(BCom Monetary Policy of India Notes Study Material)
(iii) Rationing of Credit: It is an another instrument of selective credit control. Under this method, the Reserve Bank of India determines the credit limit for different purposes for member banks. If the member banks seek to more loans than the quota which is fix for them, they will have to pay higher rate of interest to the RBI than the prevailing bank rate.
(iv) Credit Authorization Scheme (CAS): This scheme was introduced by the RBI in November, 1965. Under this scheme, commercial banks has seek authorization from the Reserve Bank before sanctioning bank loan exceeding Rs.1 crore or more to any single party. The amount of this limit has been changed from time to time and it was raised to Rs. 6 crore with effect from April 1986.
However in such a case, a system of post sanction scrutiny called Credit Monetary Arrangements (CMA) has been introduced to monitor and scrutinize all sanction of bank loans exceeding 35 crore to any single party and 2 crore in case of term loans.(BCom Monetary Policy of India Notes Study Material)
(v) Moral Persuasion: It is also a selective credit control measure of RBI. Under which, the Reserve Bank persuades, member banks to follow the policy guidelines regarding excessive control over credit in general or advances against particular commodities or unsecured advances. To achieve this objective regular meetings and discussion are held with representatives of commercial banks.
FIRST BI-MONTHLY MONETARY POLICY STATEMENT, 2015-16
RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan kept the benchmark repo rate or the rate at which the Central Bank lends money to banks, unchanged to 7.5%, in the first bi-monthly monetary policy review of 2015-16. Following are the highlights of RBI’s first bi-monthly monetary policy statement, 2015-16 (April 2007):
(1) Short-term lending rate (repo) unchanged at 7.5%.
(2) Cash Reserve Ratio unchanged at 4%.
(3) Retains Statutory Liquidity Ratio at 21.5%.
(4) Estimates GDP at 7.8% in Fy’ 16 up from Fy’ 15.
(5) Forecast CPI inflation at 5.8% by March 2016.
(6) 100% CPI inflation to dip to 4% in Aug. 2015.
(7) Hailstorms in March affected 17% of the rabi crop sown area.
(8) Future rate cut will depend an interest rate deduction by banks.
(9) State cooperative banks to be allowed to set-up off-site Mobile ATM without prior approval from RBI.
(10) RBI to formulate scheme for market making by primary dealers in semi liquid and illiquid G-sectors.
RBI’S SECOND BI-MONTHLY MONETARY POLICY STATEMENT FOR 2015-16
Following are the highlights of RBT’s second bi-monthly monetary policy statement for 2015-15:
(1) Short-term lending rate (repo) cut by 0.25 percent to 7.25 percent (Current repo rate is 6.75% w.e.f. 30th Sep., 2015).
(2) Cash reserve ratio unchanged at 4 percent.
(3) Statutory liquidity ratio retained at 21.5 percent.
(4) Inflation expected to rise 6 percent by January 2016.
(5) Strong food policy management needed to keep inflation and inflationary expectations under check.
(6) Growth forecast lowered to 7.6 percent for 2015-16 from 7.8 percent projected in April.(BCom Monetary Policy of India Notes Study Material)
(7) Banks asked to pass on benefit of rate cuts to borrowers.
(8) Targeted infusion of bank capital in to PSU banks needed to ensure credit flows to productive sectors.
AN EVALUATION OF MONETARY POLICY
The RBI’s monetary policy has been characterised as one of controlled expansion. But monetary policy has become a target of serious criticism. It is said that the RBI has failed both in expansion and control of money and credit in our economy with regard to the expansion of credit. It is said that, the major component of the increase in money supply was the Reserve Bank credit to the Central Government. The inability of the Reserve Bank to regulate credit to the Central Government due to both legal and practical consideration has been interpreted by the Committee (Sukhamoy Chakravarty Committee) as an important factor in the Reserve Bank helplessness in controlling the rise in money supply.(BCom Monetary Policy of India Notes Study Material)
For the role of RBI in controlling inflation, it is said that the monetary policy operated by RBI did not play any effective role in controlling inflation in economy. The growth of money supply in recent years was much higher than growth in output. So that, the average annual rise of prices of nearly 10 percent during this period. Besides this, the Reserve Bank may not have effect on deficit financing and shortage of goods. Lastly the Apex Bank has no power over non-banking financial institution and indigenous bankers who continue to play a considerable role in financing, trade and industry. True, RBI has been less proactive, conservative and a stooge in the hands of Central Government but it is the same RBI which has saved the economy and maintained a steady growth rate.
BCom Monetary Policy of India Notes Study Material