BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material
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BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material
CONCEPT OF SOCIAL INJUSTICE
Social Injustice means all facilities are not given equally to all the persons of a country based on caste, religion, sex, age level of income, physical disabilities, or some other reasons. In other words, it means inequality of income, lack of social services, and the existence of socially disadvantaged groups. These disadvantaged groups not only adversely affect economic growth but also create social tension, crimes, and create barriers to social equality. (BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material)
The constitution of India made many provisions to give equal rights to everyone under fundamental rights. Article 14 has laid down that, “The state shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.” article 16 has provided equality for an opportunity in matters of public employment, the main object of which is to create a constitutional right of opportunity and employment in public office. (BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material)
Article 17 has abolished untouchability and its practice in any form is forbidden. However, India is still facing the problem of social injustice like inequality in the distribution of income, and wealth, regional imbalances, employment problems, lack of health, water, and education, and injustice towards children, women, disabled people, old age people, orphan, socially deprived section of society.
In fact, India has been suffering from social injustice since it became a free country in 1947. Unfortunately, constitutional provisions and laws could not stop social injustice. Though untouchability has been abolished by law it is still in practice, especially in rural areas. The scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, and other backward classes are still discriminated against. On the other hand, minorities are not treated equally. (BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material)
Finally, we can say that social injustice includes the following:
(i) Inequalities of income and wealth.
(ii) Increase in unemployment.
(iii) Increase in absolute poverty.
(iv) Increase in child and women labor.
(v) Lack of infrastructure and social services in rural areas.
(vi) Preference of male child – Decline in sex ratio.
(vii) Regional imbalances.
(viii) Minimum facilities of health in rural areas.
(ix) Illiteracy of females in rural areas.
(x) Unsafe drinking water and lack of sanitation facilities.
(xi) Socially deprived section of society–ST/SC/BC still deprived of basic facilities.
(xii) Problem of malnutrition in women and children etc.
CAUSES OF SOCIAL INJUSTICE IN INDIA
There are innumerable causes of social injustice in India. some of which are historical and others are economical in nature.
(i) Population: It has been one of the major problems in India. The large size of the population and its higher growth both adversely affected the economic development of India. This ultimately results in problems like unemployment, poverty, low per capita income, the large size of families, and a low standard of living. (BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material)
(ii) Unemployment: India is still facing the problem of unemployment. The reason behind this is that excessive dependency upon agriculture and fewer employment opportunities because of corruption in Govt. of the sector and political interference. All of these lead to inequality of income in society. (BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material)
(iii) Underdeveloped Infrastructure in Rural Areas: The pace of development of infrastructure is very slow in rural areas. Rural areas still face the problem of inadequate development of infrastructural facilities like roads, transport, electricity, medical, banking, communication, education, etc. These problems jointly affect economic growth in rural areas.
(iv) Inequality in Distribution of Land Holdings: Old Zamindari System has been responsible for inequality in land distribution and income in India. The small farmers were under the clutches of Zamindars. After independence, the Zamindari System has been abolished but inequality in land distribution is still continuing. According to the 16th round of the National Sample Survey (1960-61) 40% of small farmers own 14% of land holdings, 30% of medium farmers own 30% of land holding and 10% of rich farmers own 56% of the land, while 20% of farmers have no land at all. Thus it is a major cause of social inequality. (BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material)
(v) Low Standard of Living: Indian citizens have low per capita income in comparison to other countries in the world. Along with this, the economic condition of the socially deprived section of society remains very bad. Thus, the weaker section of society survives with a low standard of living.
(vi) Poverty: Poverty is one of the biggest causes of social injustice. The problem of poverty is contributing to the widening of the gap between rich and poor. The poor people were not sending their children to school because poverty forced them to earn for the family which gave birth to the problem of child labor. (BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material)
(vii) Illiteracy: It is one of the biggest challenges for social injustice. As per Census 2011, 26% of our population is illiterate. However, the literacy rate of females is high at 65.5%. Illiteracy in any section of society gives birth to their exploitation and many social evils like poverty, high birth rate, unemployment increased crime rate, etc. (BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material)
(viii) Expensive Professional Training: Our educational system is not good regarding special training for professional work. No relief has been given by Government for the professional training for poor people. As a result, poor people cannot afford it because of expensive training and professional courses. Thus, social inequalities have continued in society. (BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material)
(ix) Child Labour: The problem of child labor is a major cause of social injustice. Despite the ban on employment of child labor having an age of below 1 year, the children are being employed in the unorganized sector, domestic service, and home-based industries because of absolute poverty and availability of labor at a very low rate. (BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material)
(x) Other Causes: Some other causes of social injustice are:
(a) Reservation policy of jobs
(b) Regional imbalances
(c) Vicious Circle of Poverty
(d) Social caste
(e) Concentration of economic power
(f) Corruption and Black money etc.
SUGGESTIONS FOR REDUCING SOCIAL INJUSTICE
The following steps may be taken to remove social injustice in India:
- Empowerment of the poor and socially deprived section.
- Expansion of basic facilities like a house, safe drinking water, and sanitation.
- Control of population.
- Upgradation in the education system.
- Availability of training facilities for the poor.
- Enhancing security for the poor.
- Empowerment of women.
- Removal of child labor.
- Reduction of regional imbalances.
- To improve health and family welfare.
- Encouragement of small-scale & cottage industries.
- Infrastructural development in rural areas.
- Curbing generation of black money.
- Reduction of economic inequalities.
MEASURES TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT TO REDUCE SOCIAL INJUSTICE IN INDIA
Since it was recognized from the very beginning of independence that there is social injustice to certain castes, sex, age, and certain social groups. The various plans have attempted to reduce social injustices, exploitations, and discrimination. Some of these are discussed below:
(i) Poverty Alleviation Programmes to Reduce Poverty and Unemployment: Following are a few poverty alleviation programs have been launched by Govt of India during different planning periods:
(a) Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)
(b) Sampoorn Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)
(c) Swarnjayanti Sahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)
(d) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY)
(e) Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY)
(f) Jai Prakash Rozgar Guarantee Yojana (JPRGY)
(g) Employment Assurance Scheme
(h) Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act etc.
(ii) Empowerment of Women: The Government is very much concerned to protect social and economic injustice against women and in Aug 2000 set up a task force to review laws and programs for women. Based on their findings in March 2000-2001 the cabinet approved, a National Policy for the empowerment of women. In this tune number of laws have been passed for empowering women in the following areas:
(a) Violence against women,
(b) Gender sensitization,
(c) The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1996,
(d) Incident Representation of Women (Prevention Act),
(e) The Immoral Traffic Prevention Act,
(f) Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK) etc.
(iii) For Welfare of SCIST/BC: For the welfare of SC/ST/BC Government emphasis is laid on improving education facilities for scheduled caste, improving enrolment of SC children in school, reducing the dropout rate of SC children from school, providing scholarships to backward and poor students.
For the development of infrastructure in tribal areas some schemes have been launched, the Adivasi Mahila Yojana, New Swarnima Scheme, Mahila Smridhi Yojana, etc. (BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material)
(iv) Measures taken for Upliftment of Backward Classes: Following measures have been taken for the upliftment of backward classes:
(a) Central Assistance is provided to the State Government for the educational development of backward classes.
(b) Through voluntary organizations Govt. implemented various skill development programs for OBCs.
(c) National Backward Classes finance development corporation has launched a scheme ‘New Swarnima’ for women belonging to backward classes living below the poverty line. (BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material)
(v) Promotion of Educational Facilities: Recently Government has given the highest priority to elementary education. For this Government has launched a scheme of Education for All’ by making free education to the children in the age group of 6-14 years.
The following programs have been launched by Govt. to promote education.
(a) Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)
(b) Rashtriya Madyamic Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)
(c) Mid-day Meal
(d) National Literacy Mission etc.
(vi) Improvement of Health Facilities: To improve the health of society Government has established a well-structured three-tier public health infrastructure, comprising Community Health Centres (CHCs), Primary Health Centres (PHCs), and Sub-centres (SCs) spread across rural and semi-urban areas. The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was also launched in 2005 to provide quality health services in rural areas.
BCom Social Injustice Notes Study Material