BSc 2nd Year Microbial Biotechnology Notes Study Material
BSc 2nd Year Microbiology Microbial Biotechnology Notes Study Material: BSc is a three-year program in most of the universities. Some of the universities also offer BSc Honours. After getting enrolled for BSc, there are certain things you require the most to get better grades/marks in BSc. Out of those, there are BSc 2nd Year Study Material, BSc Sample Model Practice Mock Question Answer Papers along with BSc Previous Year Papers. At gurujistudy.com you can easily get all these study material and notes for free. Here in this post, we are happy to provide you BSc 2nd Year Microbiology Microbial Biotechnology Notes Study Material.
BSc Microbiology Microbial Biotechnology Notes Study Material
New strains of microbes have been developed having the desired activities (entirely a new activity of enhancement activity in terms of rate productions). Environmental micro biology, a new field, could thus become of much relevance to us.(Microbial Biotechnology Notes Study Material)
Microbes and Agriculture
Besides being important in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, microbes play vital role in maintenance of soil fertility and in crop protection.
[I] Soil fertility
Microbes are being exploited in two important ways – biofertilisers, and creating new nitrogen-fixing organisms.
1. Biofertilisers. Potential of Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Azospirillum, cyanobacteria, such as species of Aulosira, Anabaena, Nostoc, Plectonema, Scytonema , Tolypothrix, and Azolla as biofertilisers has been exploited so as these could serve an alternative to chemical fertilisers. Many brands of rhizobial inoculants are already in market today in the country. Several organisations and manufacturers are producing huge quantities of Rhizobium culture in the country. These include Micro. Bac., India, Shyamnagar, Parganas; Bacifil Inoculants, Lucknow; Govt. of Tamil Nadu: Nitro Fix Industries, Calcutta (W. Bengal) and Indian Organic Chemical Ltd. Bombay. In some other States, units are being prepared for increase in its production. Much progress has also been made with cyanobacteria in this direction.(Microbial Biotechnology Notes Study Material)
Mycorrhizae, both ecto- and endomycorrhiza help in uptake of N, P, K and Ca. They, particularly help in phosphorous nutrition.
2. New nitrogen-fixers. Through recombinant DNA technology efforts have been made to introduce nitrogen-fixing genes (nif genes) into wheat, corn, rice, etc. Plasmids of the bacterium, E. coli and yeast are being worked out for such a possibility. Hybrid E. coli plasmid cloned with nif genes of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and hybrid yeast plasmids are then integrated.
Several microbes (viruses bacteria, and fungi) are being developed as suitable biopesticides for management of insect and nematodal pests. Some fungi have good potential of their use as bionematicides to control nematodal pests of vegetables, fruit and cereal crops.(Microbial Biotechnology Notes Study Material)
Some bacterial and fungal products are also in use to control diseases of roots and shoots of plants. Following are some of the microbial pesticides registered for commercial production:
Several fungi have been found very useful in the control of troublesome weeds of crop fields. Registered products are available in market for use in several countries.
Microbes and Public Health
The most successful bio-insecticide has so far been the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. Several registered products of different strains of this microbe are on sale, thuricide being one, for the control of insects including mosquito-the carrier of malaria.(BSc Microbial Biotechnology Notes Study Material)
Microbes and Food
Applications of microbes to food, energy, industry and environment are interrelated in most situations. To cite an example, degradation of urban, municipal and industrial wastes by using a suitable (may be a tailored, genetically-engineered) strain of a microorganism should result into (i) disposal of pollutant, (ii) biotransformation of a waste into a byproduct, suitable for consumption as food (conversion of agricultural waste into single cell protein is an example) and (iii) production of energy during conversions. Therefore it is a three-way beneficial process carried out microbe.
Microbes and Industry
Applications of microbes in industry are well known. Various microorganisms are used for commercial production of alcohols, acids, fermented foods, vitamin, medicines, enzymes, etc. One recent development in industrial microbiology has been the production of immobilised enzymes and cells for production of these chemicals at enhanced rates with simultaneous recovery of the enzymes involved in such processes. New strains of microbes have also been developed through recombinant DNA technology for overproduction of metabolites. Immobilised enzymes and cells could have their maximum application in industrial microbiology. Immobilised enzymes have also been utilised in medicine. Some examples of applications of immobilised enzymes and cells of microorganisms in industry are given below:
Microbes in Recovery of Metals
Recently microbes have been found very useful in enhanced recovery of metals including uranium from low-grade ores. Through bioleaching these microbes are able to solubilise the metals from their ores. Microbes thus play important role in mining and recovery of metals. For instance, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and T.ferrooxidans can be used in recovery of copper.
Microbes in Enhanced Recovery of Petroleum
Microbes are used in tertiary recovery of petroleum. For instance a bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris is being exploited for this purpose. Some thiobacilli have also been found to have this potential.
Microbes in Paper Industry
Mechanical pulping in manufacture process of paper from wood needs much energy and also does not preserve the quality of the product. Therefore, potential of some lignin-decomposing fungi (lignolytic fungi) has been exploited for this process. Biological pulping by use of these higher fungi (Basidiomycotina) could find application in paper industry. Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been mostly studied for biopulping.(Microbial Biotechnology Notes Study Material)
Microbes in Medicine
Antibiotic and other chemotherapeutic agents production by a range of microbes is well-known. Recent development in this area has been the use of microbial biotechnology in steroid transformations and biotransformation of natural pencillin G to several semi-synthetic penicillins. Penicillin acylase produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyvera citrophila is used in biotransformation of penicillin G to semi-synthetic penicillins.
Microbial transformation of steroids is very important in pharmaceutical industry. Rhizopus nigricans hydroxylates progesterone forming another steroid.
Microbes in Synthetic Fuels (Energy)
Several microbes have been found helpful in solution of energy crisis. Synthetic fuels produced by activity of microbes include ethanol, methane, hydrogen and hydrocarbons. Gasohol, a 9:1 blend of gasoline and ethanol is popular fuel in USA. The most efficient microbes are Zymomonas mobilis and Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus. Methane is produced by methanogenic bacteria and biogas, a mixture of CH4, CO2, H2, N2 and O2 is produced during fermentation of cattle dung by several bacteria including methanogens.
Microbes and Environment (Environmental Microbiology)
Microorganisms play several key roles in the environment. Besides their well-known activities in biogeochemical cycling, soil fertility maintenance etc., several microbes could be shown very helpful in maintenance of environmental quality through biodegradation of wastes (urban, municipal and industrial) into useful products and also in biodegradation of harmful pesticides used in crop protection and public health. DDT, lindane heptachlor, chlordane, malathion etc., are biodegraded by several bacteria, and fungi. These microbes are thus efficient purifiers of the environment.(Microbial Biotechnology Notes Study Material)
Besides this, microbes are also able to remove toxic heavy metals from industrial wastes. Some bacteria are also able to metabolise hydrocarbons in the petroleum and thus very useful in remove of oil-spills and grease from water bodies. A strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been developed in USA which is able to produce a glycolipid emulsifier that reduces the surface tension of an oil water interface, thus removing oil from water. For removal of grease deposits, a mixture of several bacteria is used.(Microbial Biotechnology Notes Study Material)
Some microorganisms can also be used in environmental monitoring and bio-monitoring. Biosensor is a biophysical device used to detect the presence and quantify the specific substances (sugars, proteins, hormones, pollutants) in the specific environments.(Microbial Biotechnology Notes Study Material)
BSc Microbiology Microbial Biotechnology Notes Study Material